Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali

Spoleto, Italy

Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali

Spoleto, Italy
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Anselmi C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Vagnini M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Cartechini L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Grazia C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 9 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2017

A complete non-invasive characterization by XRF, XRD, near-FTIR and UV–Vis reflectance spectroscopy has been performed on some commercially available violet pigments as well as on pure violet Co-salts also known to be used as pigments. The obtained results show that, after a preliminary elemental characterization, the studied pigments can be easily identified by near-FTIR and UV–Vis spectroscopies since they exhibit peculiar spectral bands in these regions. Among the analyzed samples emerged that the pigment 45350 - “Manganviolett” from Kremer consists of two α- and β-NH4MnP2O7 polymorphs, being α-NH4MnP2O7 the most abundant one; furthermore we found that the pigment R1215D -“Cobalt violet” by Winsor & Newton (no longer available since 2006) displays spectral features that match exactly those of 45820-“Kobaltviolett hell” from Kremer and both are composed by cobalt ammonium phosphate hydrate. Such non-invasive study allowed for the identification of “Manganese Violet” (α-NH4MnP2O7) and anhydrous cobalt phosphate (Co3(PO4)2) on some Boccioni's paintings during MOLAB in situ measurements at the Museo del Novecento (Milano). © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Invernizzi C.,University of Pavia | Daveri A.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Vagnini M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Malagodi M.,University of Pavia
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

The analysis of historical musical instruments is becoming more relevant and the interest is increasingly moving toward the non-invasive reflection FTIR spectroscopy, especially for the analysis of varnishes. In this work, a specific infrared reflectance spectral library of organic compounds was created with the aim of identifying musical instrument materials in a totally non-invasive way. The analyses were carried out on pure organic compounds, as bulk samples and laboratory wooden models, to evaluate the diagnostic reflection mid-infrared (MIR) bands of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and resins by comparing reflection spectra before and after the KK correction. This methodological approach was applied to real case studies represented by four Stradivari violins and a Neapolitan mandolin. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Monico L.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Monico L.,University of Perugia | Monico L.,University of Antwerp | Rosi F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | And 6 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

(Graph Presented) In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm-1) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm-1) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rosi F.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Rosi F.,University of Perugia | Harig R.,Bruker | Miliani C.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

A novel hyperspectral imaging system (HI90, Bruker Optics), working in the mid-infrared range and recently developed for the remote identification and mapping of hazardous compounds, has here been optimized for investigating painting surfaces. The painting Sestante 10 (1982) by Alberto Burri has been spectrally and spatially investigated with the HI90 system revealing the distribution of inorganic materials constituting the artworks. In order to validate the results obtainable by the imager for the pigment identification previous tests on laboratory models were performed. Yellow, white and blue pigments painted with different binders (namely egg, alkyd, acrylic and vinyl) were investigated by the HI90. Afterwards, the polychrome painting Sestante 10 was investigated focusing the attention on the inorganic material distribution revealing the presence of different extenders (kaolin, BaSO4, CaSO4) mixed with the various silica-based pigments present in the painting. The brightness temperature spectra collected by HI90 have also been compared to single point reflection spectra acquired by a conventional portable FTIR spectrometer (Alpha-R by Bruker Optics) highlighting the good spectral quality of the imaging system. This comparison permitted also to evaluate the spectral response and the diagnostic strengths of the spectral range available by the HI90 imaging (1300-860 cm-1), validating the reliability of the obtained chemical images. This study clearly highlights the high potential of the new hyperspectral imaging system and opens up new perspectives in the current scientific interest devoted to the application of mapping and imaging methods for the study of painting surfaces. © 2013 SPIE.

Palmieri M.,University of Perugia | Vagnini M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Pitzurra L.,University of Perugia | Brunetti B.G.,University of Perugia | Cartechini L.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

We report the development of an indirect ELISA procedure for specific identification of chicken-egg yolk and animal glues in painting micro-samples. The results presented integrate previously published work on ELISA recognition of bovine β-casein and chicken ovalbumin in painting materials. The integrated final ELISA procedure - optimised for protein extraction, immuno-reagent concentrations, blocking solution, incubation time, and temperature - enables multiplex identification, in single samples, of proteinaceous materials, i.e. chicken-egg yolk and albumen, animal glues, and bovine milk and/or casein, mainly used by painters in the past. The procedure has been systematically tested on laboratory models of mural and easel paintings, both naturally and artificially aged, to assess possible inhibitory effects on the immuno-reaction caused by inorganic painting materials (pigments and substrates) and by protein degradation resulting from aging processes. Real samples from case studies, which had previously been investigated and characterised by spectroscopy and chromatography, were successfully studied by use of the developed ELISA procedure. The commercial availability of all the immuno-reagents used, the affordable analytical equipment, and the specificity, sensitivity, and rapidity of ELISA make this method very attractive to diagnostic laboratories in the field of cultural heritage science. Possible further developments to the analytical potential of this technique include improvement of antibody performance and inclusion of other classes of bio-molecules as analytical targets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Monico L.,University of Perugia | Monico L.,University of Antwerp | Janssens K.,University of Antwerp | Miliani C.,University of Perugia | And 15 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The painter, Vincent van Gogh, and some of his contemporaries frequently made use of the pigment chrome yellow that is known to show a tendency toward darkening. This pigment may correspond to various chemical compounds such as PbCrO4 and PbCr1-xSxO4, that may each be present in various crystallographic forms with different tendencies toward degradation. Investigations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mid-Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman instruments (benchtop and portable) and synchrotron radiation-based micro-XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy performed on oil-paint models, prepared with in-house synthesized PbCrO4 and PbCr1-xSxO4, permitted us to characterize the spectroscopic features of the various forms. On the basis of these results, an extended study has been carried out on historic paint tubes and on embedded paint microsamples taken from yellow-orange/pale yellow areas of 12 Van Gogh paintings, demonstrating that Van Gogh effectively made use of different chrome yellow types. This conclusion was also confirmed by in situ mid-FTIR investigations on Van Gogh's Portrait of Gauguin (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Daveri A.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Vagnini M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Nucera F.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Azzarelli M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | And 2 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2016

Imaging techniques represent an unavoidable analytical tool for the non-invasive investigation of cultural heritage objects providing useful information for the identification and distribution of materials on the investigated surface. In particular, photo-induced luminescence imaging can give important indications as to the distribution of organic (binders, resins, dyes and lakes) and inorganic (Egyptian blue, Han blue, Han purple, zinc oxide, cadmium based pigments) constituting materials. Recently the use of LEDs, generating a narrow emission band in the Visible range, has been introduced opening up a new perspective in the detection of inorganic luminescent pigments. In this work we propose a user-friendly tool for luminescence acquisition based on the use of a custom made interchangeable and tunable LED light source system, that allows us to select both the power and the wavelength of the excitation light. The study involved the analysis of panel painting replicas prepared applying several pigments and lakes commonly used by artists in different historical periods. The luminescence images were recorded by a high sensitivity CCD camera and a Vidicon camera in the Visible and NIR range, under three excitation narrow bands (red LEDs at 630. nm; green LEDs at 517. nm and blue LEDs at 465. nm). The reliability of the developed experimental setup has been validated by spectrofluorimetric measurements. A very high correspondence between imaging and spectral response has been found concerning emission band position, emission intensity and excitation wavelength effect. Furthermore, the NIR luminescence of a modern yellow pigment, nickel titanate, has been for the first time documented. The defined methodology has been applied to the study of works of art of different historical periods where it has been proved to successfully detect luminescent inorganic and organic pigments, whose presence has been confirmed also by elemental analyses and spectrofluorimetry. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Invernizzi C.,University of Pavia | Daveri A.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Rovetta T.,University of Pavia | Vagnini M.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | And 3 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2016

The study and characterization of the materials of historic musical instruments, especially violins, represent an important aim for scientists and conservators. In particular, the varnishes have been often investigated, even to correlate their chemical characteristics with the sound produced by instruments. However, in the last years, the attention has moved to the study of those materials (inlays, pigments, binders, fillers, glues) used by important ancient violin makers, as Antonio Stradivari, to decorate the musical instruments in order to confer a higher aesthetic value. Because of the importance of the ancient violins, the analytical investigations have to be performed more and more with non-invasive methodologies, and this could be a strong shortcoming for the complexity of the materials to study. Therefore, the scientific research has improving new methodological approaches that could provide several results without touching the violins. The "Hellier" violin (1679), actually held in Museo del Violino of Cremona (Italy), is one of the most important violin made by Antonio Stradivari and represents a perfect example for the study of both varnishes and decorations. This contribution focuses on the materials' characterization through different totally non-invasive diagnostic techniques: UV-induced visible fluorescence imaging, optical microscopy, reflection FTIR spectroscopy, and XRF spectroscopy. In particular, reflection infrared spectroscopy has been applied for the characterization of several organic substances historically used to make the musical instruments, with the aim of achieving a correct interpretation of the violin varnish spectra. The varnishes, the black strips of the purflings, the black fillers, and the white decorations of the inlays were investigated. The preliminary results suggest the presence of (i) supposed resinous drying oil varnish, (ii) metal-based ink used to dye the black filler of the inlays and the black strips of the purflings, and (iii) bone or ivory as material for the white decorative elements of the inlays. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Rosi F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Daveri A.,Associazione Laboratorio Of Diagnostica Per I Beni Culturali | Moretti P.,University of Perugia | Brunetti B.G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 3 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2015

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of reflection infrared spectroscopy in discriminating among different binding media in 20th century painting, with relation to distortion effects due to the mixing of surface and volume reflection and potential overlaps by pigment absorption bands. The study was carried out analyzing the reflection infrared properties of modern paint reconstructions including acrylic emulsion, polyvinyl acetate resin, oil-modified alkyd resin and two traditional media (drying oil and proteinaceous tempera) in mixture with a number of pigments selected for their absorption bands and their potential overlaps in the mid and near-infrared regions. Specific spectral markers were determined for each binding medium and then successfully exploited for the interpretation/classification of non-invasive reflection infrared spectra recorded in situ on eleven paintings of the second half of the twentieth century. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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