Mousis O.,University of Franche Comte |
Hueso R.,University of the Basque Country |
Beaulieu J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Bouley S.,University Paris - Sud |
And 58 more authors.
Experimental Astronomy | Year: 2014
Amateur contributions to professional publications have increased exponentially over the last decades in the field of planetary astronomy. Here we review the different domains of the field in which collaborations between professional and amateur astronomers are effective and regularly lead to scientific publications.We discuss the instruments, detectors, software and methodologies typically used by amateur astronomers to collect the scientific data in the different domains of interest. Amateur contributions to the monitoring of planets and interplanetary matter, characterization of asteroids and comets, as well as the determination of the physical properties of Kuiper Belt Objects and exoplanets are discussed. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Hanus J.,Charles University |
Durech J.,Charles University |
Broz M.,Charles University |
Marciniak A.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
And 101 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013
Context. The larger number of models of asteroid shapes and their rotational states derived by the lightcurve inversion give us better insight into both the nature of individual objects and the whole asteroid population. With a larger statistical sample we can study the physical properties of asteroid populations, such as main-belt asteroids or individual asteroid families, in more detail. Shape models can also be used in combination with other types of observational data (IR, adaptive optics images, stellar occultations), e.g., to determine sizes and thermal properties. Aims. We use all available photometric data of asteroids to derive their physical models by the lightcurve inversion method and compare the observed pole latitude distributions of all asteroids with known convex shape models with the simulated pole latitude distributions. Methods. We used classical dense photometric lightcurves from several sources (Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue, Palomar Transient Factory survey, and from individual observers) and sparse-in-time photometry from the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Catalina Sky Survey, and La Palma surveys (IAU codes 689, 703, 950) in the lightcurve inversion method to determine asteroid convex models and their rotational states. We also extended a simple dynamical model for the spin evolution of asteroids used in our previous paper. Results. We present 119 new asteroid models derived from combined dense and sparse-in-time photometry. We discuss the reliability of asteroid shape models derived only from Catalina Sky Survey data (IAU code 703) and present 20 such models. By using different values for a scaling parameter cYORP (corresponds to the magnitude of the YORP momentum) in the dynamical model for the spin evolution and by comparing synthetic and observed pole-latitude distributions, we were able to constrain the typical values of the c YORP parameter as between 0.05 and 0.6. © 2013 ESO.
Marciniak A.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
Pilcher F.,4438 Organ Mesa Loop |
Oszkiewicz D.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
Santana-Ros T.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
And 22 more authors.
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2015
Physical studies of asteroids depend on an availability of lightcurve data. Targets that are easy to observe and analyse naturally have more data available, so their synodic periods are confirmed from multiple sources. Also, thanks to availability of data from a number of apparitions, their spin and shape models can often be obtained, with a precise value of sidereal period and spin axis coordinates.Almost half of bright (H≤11mag) main-belt asteroid population with known lightcurve parameters have rotation periods considered long (P≥12h) and are rarely chosen for photometric observations. There is a similar selection effect against asteroids with low lightcurve amplitudes (amax≤0.25mag). As a result such targets, though numerous in this brightness range, are underrepresented in the sample of spin and shape modelled asteroids. In the range of fainter targets such effects are stronger. These selection effects can influence what is now known about asteroid spin vs. size distribution, on asteroid internal structure and densities and on spatial orientation of asteroid spin axes.To reduce both biases at the same time, we started a photometric survey of a substantial sample of those bright main-belt asteroids that displayed both features: periods longer than 12. h, and amplitudes that did not exceed 0.25. magnitude. First we aim at finding synodic periods of rotation, and after a few observed apparitions, obtaining spin and shape models of the studied targets.As an initial result of our survey we found that a quarter of the studied sample (8 out of 34 targets) have rotation periods different from those widely accepted. We publish here these newly found period values with the lightcurves.The size/frequency plot might in reality look different in the long-period range. Further studies of asteroid spins, shapes, and structure should take into account serious biases that are present in the parameters available today. Photometric studies should concentrate on such difficult targets to remove the biases and to complete the sample. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Carry B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Carry B.,European Space Agency |
Matter A.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy |
Matter A.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory |
And 32 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2015
In understanding the composition and internal structure of asteroids, their density is perhaps the most diagnostic quantity. We aim here at characterizing the surface composition, mutual orbit, size, mass, and density of the small main-belt binary asteroid (939) Isberga. For that, we conduct a suite of multi-technique observations, including optical lightcurves over many epochs, near-infrared spectroscopy, and interferometry in the thermal infrared. We develop a simple geometric model of binary systems to analyze the interferometric data in combination with the results of the lightcurve modeling. From spectroscopy, we classify Ibserga as a Sq-type asteroid, consistent with the albedo of 0.14-0.06+0.09 (all uncertainties are reported as 3- σ range) we determine (average albedo of S-types is 0.197. ±. 0.153, see Pravec et al. (Pravec et al. . Icarus 221, 365-387). Lightcurve analysis reveals that the mutual orbit has a period of 26.6304. ±. 0.0001. h, is close to circular (eccentricity lower than 0.1), and has pole coordinates within 7° of (225°, +86°) in Ecliptic J2000, implying a low obliquity of 1.5-1.5+6.0deg. The combined analysis of lightcurves and interferometric data allows us to determine the dimension of the system and we find volume-equivalent diameters of 12.4-1.2+2.5km and 3.6-0.3+0.7km for Isberga and its satellite, circling each other on a 33. km wide orbit. Their density is assumed equal and found to be 2.91-2.01+1.72gcm-3, lower than that of the associated ordinary chondrite meteorites, suggesting the presence of some macroporosity, but typical of S-types of the same size range (Carry . Planet. Space Sci. 73, 98-118). The present study is the first direct measurement of the size of a small main-belt binary. Although the interferometric observations of Isberga are at the edge of MIDI capabilities, the method described here is applicable to others suites of instruments (e.g., LBT, ALMA). © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Hanus J.,French National Center for Space Studies |
Hanus J.,University Of La Cote Dazur |
urech J.,Charles University |
Oszkiewicz D.A.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
And 171 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016
Context. Asteroid modeling efforts in the last decade resulted in a comprehensive dataset of almost 400 convex shape models and their rotation states. These efforts already provided deep insight into physical properties of main-belt asteroids or large collisional families. Going into finer detail (e.g., smaller collisional families, asteroids with sizes 20 km) requires knowledge of physical parameters of more objects. Aims. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states. Such results provide important input for further studies, such as analysis of asteroid physical properties in different populations, including smaller collisional families, thermophysical modeling, and scaling shape models by disk-resolved images, or stellar occultation data. This provides bulk density estimates in combination with known masses, but also constrains theoretical collisional and evolutional models of the solar system. Methods. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. The key ingredient is the support of more that 100 observers who submit their optical data to publicly available databases. Results. We present updated shape models for 36 asteroids, for which mass estimates are currently available in the literature, or for which masses will most likely be determined from their gravitational influence on smaller bodies whose orbital deflections will be observed by the ESA Gaia astrometric mission. Moreover, we also present new shape model determinations for 250 asteroids, including 13 Hungarias and three near-Earth asteroids. The shape model revisions and determinations were enabled by using additional optical data from recent apparitions for shape optimization. © 2016 ESO.