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Silver Spring, MD, United States

Ding Y.,Association of Public Health Laboratories | Thompson J.D.,Office of Newborn Screening | Kobrynski L.,Emory University | Ojodu J.,Association of Public Health Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics

Objective To evaluate the expected cost-effectiveness and net benefit of the recent implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Washington State. Study design We constructed a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and benefits of NBS in an annual birth cohort of 86 600 infants based on projections of avoided infant deaths. Point estimates and ranges for input variables, including the birth prevalence of SCID, proportion detected asymptomatically without screening through family history, screening test characteristics, survival rates, and costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment were derived from published estimates, expert opinion, and the Washington NBS program. We estimated treatment costs stratified by age of identification and SCID type (with or without adenosine deaminase deficiency). Economic benefit was estimated using values of $4.2 and $9.0 million per death averted. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the influence of key variables on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of net direct cost per life-year saved. Results Our model predicts an additional 1.19 newborn infants with SCID detected preclinically through screening, in addition to those who would have been detected early through family history, and 0.40 deaths averted annually. Our base-case model suggests an ICER of $35 311 per life-year saved, and a benefit-cost ratio of either 5.31 or 2.71. Sensitivity analyses found ICER values <$100 000 and positive net benefit for plausible assumptions on all variables. Conclusions Our model suggests that NBS for SCID in Washington is likely to be cost-effective and to show positive net economic benefit. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Nadon C.A.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Trees E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ng L.K.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Moller Nielsen E.,Statens Serum Institute | And 4 more authors.

Multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) has emerged as a valuable method for subtyping bacterial pathogens and has been adopted in many countries as a critical component of their laboratory- based surveillance. Lack of harmonisation and standardisation of the method, however, has made comparison of results generated in different laboratories difficult, if not impossible, and has therefore hampered its use in international surveillance. This paper proposes an international consensus on the development, validation, nomenclature and quality control for MLVA used for molecular surveillance and outbreak detection based on a review of the current state of knowledge. Source

Gill S.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gill S.R.,Buffalo Center of Excellence | Gill S.R.,University of Rochester | McIntyre L.M.,University of Florida | And 6 more authors.

Background: The clinical spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus infection ranges from asymptomatic nasal carriage to osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis (IE) and death. In this study, we evaluate potential association between the presence of specific genes in a collection of prospectively characterized S. aureus clinical isolates and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two hundred thirty-nine S. aureus isolates (121 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 118 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) were screened by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genes implicated in complicated infections. After adjustment for multiple tests, 226 genes were significantly associated with severity of infection. Of these 226 genes, 185 were not in the SCCmec element. Within the 185 non-SCCmec genes, 171 were less common and 14 more common in the complicated infection group. Among the 41 genes in the SCCmec element, 37 were more common and 4 were less common in the complicated group. A total of 51 of the 2014 sequences evaluated, 14 non-SCCmec and 37 SCCmec, were identified as genes of interest. Conclusions/Significance: Of the 171 genes less common in complicated infections, 152 are of unknown function and may contribute to attenuation of virulence. The 14 non-SCCmec genes more common in complicated infections include bacteriophage-encoded genes such as regulatory factors and autolysins with potential roles in tissue adhesion or biofilm formation. © 2011 Gill et al. Source

Van T.T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Miller J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Warshauer D.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reisdorf E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Real-time PCR methodology can be applied to rapidly and accurately detect influenza viruses. During times of surge testing or enhanced pandemic surveillance, public health laboratories (PHLs) may experience overwhelming demand for testing, even while the prevalence of positive specimens remains low. To improve laboratory capacity and testing efficiency during surges, we evaluated whether nasopharyngeal (NP)/throat swab specimens can be pooled and tested for the presence of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus without a reduction in sensitivity. Pools of 10 specimens were extracted and concentrated upon elution on the MagNA Pure LC instrument, and real-time PCR was performed on the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast platform, using the CDC swine influenza virus real-time RT-PCR detection panel (rRT-PCR swine flu panel). Specimens in positive pools were singly re-extracted and retested by PCR to identify individual positive samples. Initial studies showed that spiking a pool of nine negative specimens (100 μl each) or 900 μl of virus transport medium with 100 μl of a positive clinical specimen caused no loss of sensitivity by rRT-PCR testing. Pools containing either multiple positive specimens or specimens positive for other respiratory viruses also showed no negative effect on crossing threshold (C T) values. To test the robustness of the pooling protocol, a panel of 50 blinded samples was sent to three PHLs and tested in five pools of 10. All PHLs correctly identified the positive specimens. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a pooling strategy to increase capacity and conserve resources during surge testing and periods of enhanced influenza surveillance when the prevalence is low. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Jones T.F.,Communicable and Environmental Disease Services | Rosenberg L.,Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists | Kubota K.,Association of Public Health Laboratories | Ingram L.A.,Communicable and Environmental Disease Services
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Over 1,100 foodborne disease outbreaks cause over 23,000 illnesses in the United States annually, but the rates of outbreaks reported and successful investigation vary dramatically among states. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's outbreak reporting database, Association of Public Health Laboratories' PulseNet laboratory subtyping network survey and Salmonella laboratory survey, national public health surveillance data, and national surveys to examine potential causes of this variability. The mean rate of reporting of Salmonella outbreaks was higher in states requiring submission of all isolates to the state public health laboratory, compared to those that do not (5.9 vs. 4.1 per 10 million population, p=0.0062). Rates of overall outbreak reporting or successful identification of an etiology or food vehicle did not correlate at the state level with population, rates of sporadic disease reporting, health department organizational structure, or self-reported laboratory or epidemiologic capacity. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance systems are complex, and improving them will require a multi-faceted approach to identifying and overcoming barriers. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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