Association of Dutch Burn Centers

Beverwijk, Netherlands

Association of Dutch Burn Centers

Beverwijk, Netherlands

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Bloemen M.C.T.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Bloemen M.C.T.,Red Cross | Van Gerven M.S.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Van Gerven M.S.,Red Cross | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Background: Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface roughness is not yet available in a clinical setting. The Phaseshift Rapid In Vivo Measurement of the Skin (PRIMOS) (GFMesstechnik GmbH, Teltow, Germany) could be such an instrument. This device noninvasively produces a 3-dimensional image of the skin microtopography and measures surface roughness. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the PRIMOS for objective and quantitative measurement of surface roughness of skin and scars. Methods: Three observers assessed skin and burn scars in 60 patients using the PRIMOS and a subjective scale, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation of intraobserver and interobserver measurements. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 or greater was required for reliable results. To test validity, scores of the PRIMOS were compared with scores of the subjective scale (Pearson correlation). A Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.6 was considered a strong positive correlation. Results: All 3 surface roughness parameters of the PRIMOS showed good intraobserver and interobserver reliability for skin and scars (intraclass correlation coefficient arithmetic mean of surface roughness > 0.85, mean of 5 highest peaks and 5 deepest valleys from entire measuring field > 0.88, peak count > 0.86). The parameter arithmetic mean of surface roughness showed a strong correlation with the subjective score (Pearson arithmetic mean of surface roughness 0.70; mean of 5 highest peaks and 5 deepest valleys from entire measuring field 0.53; peak count 0.54). Limitations: The reliability and validity of the PRIMOS were only tested on skin and burn scars, not in other dermatologic diseases. Conclusions: The PRIMOS is a valid and reliable tool for objective noninvasive evaluation of surface roughness of both skin and burn scars. © 2010 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Breederveld R.S.,Red Cross | Nieuwenhuis M.K.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Tuinebreijer W.E.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Aardenburg B.,Dutch Burns Foundation
Burns | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the value of training for the Emergency Management of Severe Burns (EMSB) for medical and nursing staff working in emergency care as measured by their performance in a simulated burn incident online program. Methods: An Internet-based questionnaire, which included a simulated burn incident, was developed. All of the medical and nursing staff in hospital emergency departments and ambulance services in the Netherlands were invited to complete this questionnaire. The effect of EMSB training on the individual's knowledge of and performance in the emergency management of a burn victim was evaluated because some of the respondents had participated in EMSB training, whereas others had not. Results: Of the 280 responses received, 198 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The analyzed questionnaires were submitted by nurses (43%), ambulance workers (33%), and physicians (23%). Only 14% of the people in the study had participated in EMSB training, whereas 78% had received other or additional life support training and 22% of respondents had no additional life support training. Medical and nursing staff who had participated in EMSB training performed better in the following subjects: mentioning hypothermia as a focus of attention (70% versus 53%, p = 0.085), correct use of hand size (70% versus 36%, p = 0.001) and use of the correct hand percentage in the estimation of total body surface area (TBSA, 82% versus 57%, p = 0.015), suspicion of no airway obstruction in an outdoor trauma (93% versus 63%, p = 0.002) and referral of functional area burns to a burn center (22% versus 8%, p = 0.04). However, both groups overestimated the TBSA (34% of the total group overestimated ≥20%) and did not know the correct formula for fluid resuscitation (87% of the total group). Conclusion: There is some evidence that medical staff members who have participated in EMSB training have a better knowledge of emergency management and are more effective in the management of a simulated burn case. However, both individuals who had participated in EMSB as well as those who had not participated in EMSB needed additional training in EMSB. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.


Rashaan Z.M.,Leiden University | Krijnen P.,Leiden University | Klamer R.R.M.,Leiden University | Schipper I.B.,Leiden University | And 4 more authors.
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2014

The evidence for application of silver-containing dressings and topicals in the treatment of partial-thickness burns in pediatric patients is largely based on clinical trials involving adult patients despite the important differences between the skin of children and adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of all randomized controlled trials comparing nonsilver treatment with silver-containing dressings and silver topical agents in children with partial-thickness burns in the acute stage. Endpoints were wound healing, grafting, infection, pain, number of dressing changes, length of hospital stay, and scarring. Seven randomized controlled trials were included involving 473 participants. All trials used silver sulfadiazine as control in comparison with five different nonsilver treatments. Most trials were of moderate quality with high risk of bias. Use of nonsilver treatment led to shorter wound healing time (weighted mean difference: -3.43 days, 95% confidence interval: -4.78, -2.07), less dressing changes (weighted mean difference: -19.89 dressing changes, 95% confidence interval: -38.12, -1.66), and shorter length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference: -2.07 days, 95% confidence interval: -2.63, -1.50) compared with silver sulfadiazine treatment, but no difference in the incidence of wound infection or grafting was found. In conclusion, nonsilver treatment may be preferred over silver sulfadiazine, but high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to validly confirm the effectiveness of silver containing preparations, in particular silver-containing dressings, above nonsilver treatments. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.


van der Veen V.C.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | van der Wal M.B.A.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | van der Wal M.B.A.,Red Cross | van Leeuwen M.C.E.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | And 6 more authors.
Burns | Year: 2010

Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix structure;-constructed biological materials, composed of specific biological components; and-synthetic substitutes, which can be synthesized on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Biological and clinical requirements will be translated to composition, physical structure, immunological properties and cell-matrix interactions of the various materials. Important properties like pore size, cell adhesion sites (e.g. RGD sequences), crosslinking, degradability and the presence of a basement membrane will be discussed for each of the different classes of materials. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.


Stekelenburg C.M.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Van Der Wal M.B.A.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Knol D.L.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | De Vet H.C.W.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | And 2 more authors.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The surface area of scars is an important outcome parameter in scar assessment. It is often used to quantify the extent of scar features, such as pigmentation disturbances, hypertrophy, and contracture. Currently available techniques for measuring the surface area are known to be cumbersome or do not meet the basic clinimetric criteria (i.e., reliability and validity). Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry is a technique that may improve the quality of surface area measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry for measuring scar surface area. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, two independent clinicians photographed and measured 50 scar areas of 32 patients using a handheld stereographic camera, to assess reliability. Subsequently, using planimetry, the scar surface was traced on a transparent sheet (considered the accepted standard) to assess validity. RESULTS: Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry showed good reliability, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a coefficient of variation of 6.8 percent. To visualize the differences between the two observers, data were plotted and the limits of agreement were calculated at 0 ± 0.19 × mean surface area. Also, excellent validity was found, with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. CONCLUSION: This study showed that three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry is a reliable and valid tool for research purposes in the field of scar surface area measurements. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.


Dokter J.,Maasstad Hospital | Meijs J.,Maasstad Hospital | Oen I.M.M.H.,Maasstad Hospital | Van Baar M.E.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Since the original Baux score was outdated and inhalation injury was recognized as an important contributor to mortality, Osler et al. developed a revised Baux score for the prediction of mortality of burn patients in an American population.The aim of this study was to validate the revised Baux score with data of patients admitted to the Rotterdam Burn Center (RBC) in the Netherlands. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were analyzed for all patients with acute burn injury admitted to the RBC from 1987 to 2009 (n = 4,389), including sex, age, total body surface area involved, inhalation injury, mortality, and premorbid conditions.Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between mortality and possible contributing variables. The discriminative power of the revised Baux score was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: Overall mortality in our center was 6.5%; mortality in patients with intention to treat was 4.4%. Age, total body surface area, inhalation injury, as well as premorbid circulatory and central nervous system conditions were significant independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Revised Baux score in the RBC population (area under the curve, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.97) performed less specific and sensitive in a selected group of patients with high Baux scores (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.84). CONCLUSION: The revised Baux score is a simple and accurate model for predicting mortality in patients with acute burn injuries in a burn center setting. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


van der Veen V.C.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Vlig M.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | van Milligen F.J.,VU University Amsterdam | de Vries S.I.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | And 4 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2012

This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an interesting resource for tissue engineering approaches to heal burn wounds. Cells from burn eschar, dermis, and adipose tissue were assessed for relevant CD marker profiles using flow cytometry and for their trilineage differentiation ability in adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic conditions. Although the different cell types did not differ significantly in their CD marker expression, the eschar-derived cells and ASCs readily differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes, while dermal fibroblasts only exhibited some chondrogenic potential. We conclude that the eschar-derived mesenchymal cells represent a population of multipotent stem cells. The origin of the cells from burn eschar remains unclear, but it is likely they represent a population of adult stem cells mobilized from other parts of the body in response to the burn injury. Their resemblance to ASCs could also be cause for speculation that in deep burns the subcutaneous adipose tissue might be an important stem cell source for the healing wound. © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.


Middelkoop E.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Application of dermal substitutes has been reported to improve the outcome of burns. However, the long-term effectiveness of dermal substitutes has not been investigated objectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effectiveness of a collagen-elastin dermal substitute in acute and reconstructive burn surgery. Methods: From 1996 to 1998, an intraindividual comparison was carried out between a dermal substitute with a split-skin graft and a split-skin graft alone in patients with acute and reconstructive wounds. In this follow-up, scar elasticity, vascularization, pigmentation, and surface roughness were determined objectively. In addition, a subjective scar assessment was performed. Results: In 46 patients, 69 pairs of substituted and conventionally treated sites were measured, consisting of acute and reconstructive burn scars. In reconstructive scars, one surface roughness parameter was significantly better in substituted scars. Subjective assessment in acute and reconstructive burn scars showed several statistically significant differences in favor of substituted scars, such as pliability, relief, and the general observer score. Elasticity measurements showed higher scores for substituted scars, although the difference was not statistically significant. For the subcategory of scars treated with a largely expanded meshed skin graft, a significantly higher elasticity was found for the substituted area. Conclusion: In this first long-term and objective follow-up of dermal substitution, the authors found improved scar parameters in both acute and reconstructive wounds treated with the substitute, indicating a long-lasting effect on scar quality. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.


Walraven M.,VU University Amsterdam | Walraven M.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Gouverneur M.,Association of Dutch Burn Centers | Gouverneur M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
Wound Repair and Regeneration | Year: 2014

Scarless wound healing is a unique and intrinsic capacity of the fetal skin that is not fully understood. Further insight into the underlying mechanisms of fetal wound healing may lead to new therapeutic approaches promoting adult scarless wound healing. Differences between fetal and adult wound healing are found in the extracellular matrix, the inflammatory reaction and the levels of growth factors present in the wound. This review focuses specifically on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), as this growth factor is prominently involved in wound healing and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Although fetal fibroblasts do respond to TGF-β, they lack a proliferative and a contractile response and display short-lived myofibroblast differentiation, autocrine response, and collagen up-regulation in comparison with adult fibroblasts. Curiously, prolonged TGF-β activation is associated with fibrosis, and therefore, this short-lived response in fetal fibroblasts might contribute to scarless healing. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on TGF-β signaling and the intracellular TGF-β signaling pathway in fetal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this review also describes the various components that regulate the cellular TGF-β response and hypothesizes about the possible roles these components might play in the altered response of fetal fibroblasts to TGF-β. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.


PubMed | VU University Amsterdam and Association of Dutch Burn Centers
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society | Year: 2016

The lack of immune cells in mid-gestational fetal skin is often mentioned as a key factor underlying scarless healing. However, the scarless healing ability is conserved until long after the immune system in the fetus is fully developed. Therefore, we studied human second-trimester fetal skin and compared the numbers of immune cells and chemokine levels from fetal skin with adult skin. By using immunohistochemistry, we show that healthy fetal skin contains significant lower numbers of CD68(+) -macrophages, Tryptase(+) -mast cells, Langerin(+) -Langerhans cells, CD1a(+) -dendritic cells, and CD3(+) -T cells compared to adult skin. Staining with an early lineage leukocyte marker, i.e., CD45, verified that the number of CD45(+) -immune cells was indeed significantly lower in fetal skin but that sufficient numbers of immune cells were present in the fetal lymph node. No differences in the vascular network were observed between fetal and adult skin. Moreover, significant lower levels of lymphocyte chemokines CCL17, CCL21, and CCL27 were observed in fetal skin. However, levels of inflammatory interleukins such as IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were undetectable and levels of CCL2 were similar in healthy fetal and adult skin. In conclusion, this study shows that second-trimester fetal skin contains low levels of immune cells and leukocyte chemokines compared to adult skin. This immune cell deficiency includes CD45(+) leukocytes, despite the abundant presence of these cells in the lymph node. The immune deficiency in healthy second-trimester fetal skin may result in reduced inflammation during wound healing, and could underlie the scarless healing capacities of the fetal skin.

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