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Richardson D.B.,Association of American Geographers
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2013

Space-time integration has long been the topic of study and speculation in geography. However, in recent years an entirely new form of space-time integration has become possible in geographic information systems (GIS) and GIScience: real-time space-time integration and interaction. Although real-time spatiotemporal data are now being generated almost ubiquitously, and their applications in research and commerce are widespread and rapidly accelerating, the ability to continuously create and interact with fused space-time data in geography and GIScience is a recent phenomenon, made possible by the invention and development of real-time interactive (RTI) Global Positioning System (GPS)/GIS technology and functionality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This innovation has since functioned as a core change agent in geography, cartography, GIScience, and many related fields, profoundly realigning traditional relationships and structures, expanding research horizons, and transforming the ways in which geographic data are now collected, mapped, modeled, and used, both in geography and in science and society more broadly. Real-time space-time interactive functionality remains today the underlying process generating the current explosion of fused spatiotemporal data, new geographic research initiatives, and myriad geospatial applications in governments, businesses, and society. This article addresses briefly the development of these real-time space-time functions and capabilities; their impact on geography, cartography, and GIScience; and some implications for how discovery and change can occur in geography and GIScience and how we might foster continued innovation in these fields. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Huynh N.T.,Association of American Geographers | Sharpe B.,Wilfrid Laurier University
Journal of Geography | Year: 2013

Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial relations within a geographic context. The instrument is a test consisting of thirty question items, with the purpose to help identify the knowledge sets, thinking skills, and characteristics typical at different levels of competency. The performance score is used to classify participants along an expertise continuum, novice to expert. Generally, students performing at the expert level consist of graduate students while novices are at the grade nine level, although several anomalies are discussed. The broad instructional application of this assessment is to benchmark student performance and the level of understanding of geospatial concepts. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: GEOGRAPHY AND SPATIAL SCIENCES | Award Amount: 99.29K | Year: 2012

This collaborative transatlantic research with United States, the United Kingdom, and Finland partners will determine how geography contributes to the overall capabilities of K-12 students. There are two major components to this project that address capabilities, or the principles of understanding topics like autonomy, human rights, citizenship, sustainable development, economy and culture. The first is an international comparative analysis of national geography standards, teacher preparation curricula and practices within the U.S., U.K., and Finland to determine how standards address the capabilities of students. The resulting synthesis report will illustrate for other nations how capability concepts can bridge divergent conceptions and practices in geography education and set the stage for international collaborations in teacher preparation. The second project component will design and implement a workshop convening geography professors and recent graduates from pre-service teacher education programs in the U.S. and EU. Informed by the outcomes of content analysis research performed in the first year, participants will identify and ultimately bridge differing national conceptions of geography as an academic discipline, what it means to think geographically, and the role of post-secondary teacher preparation in enhancing geographic education. Following the workshop, the participants will develop online educational resources that will connect pre-service geography teachers for international collaborative projects using the Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) at the Association of American Geographers. These educational resources draw on an approach to curriculum development known as the capability approach to unify various national conceptions of geography in a way that enables aspiring geography teachers to engage the perspectives of their peers internationally as they develop expertise in the subject.

Geography plays an important role in everyday decision-making. Thinking geographically underpins the practice of asking questions that identify changing relationships between places, and communicate patterns observed at various scales. These questions become more complex when viewed from an international lens. This project, founded on international partnership, will enhance geographic education through teacher preparation workshops and freely accessible professional development resources. The new CGGE case studies and collaborative projects will connect pre-service teachers online to study and discuss important geographic questions in their respective nations and provide them with important opportunities for cross-cultural understanding and geographic learning in relation to capability principles. Eventually, the students of project participants will experience similar opportunities to attain international perspectives on geographic content emphasized in national standards. Together, these cross-cultural research and educational activities will facilitate the development of internationally connected teacher preparation programs rooted in sophisticated international geography perspectives.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 46.18K | Year: 2011

1065935
Michael Solem

CGGE-India Workshop: Expanding U.S.-South Asia collaborations in Geography Education

This award to The Association of American Geographers(AAG)Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) supports a U.S.-India workshop organized by Drs. Michael N. Solem, CGGE, Washington, D.C. and Dr. Chandra Balachandran, The Indian Institute of Geographical Studies (TIIGS), Bangalore, India. The CGGE-India Workshop will take place in Bangalore, March 2012. It is designed to activate collaborative research and education networks among geographers in the United States and South Asia. Participants will learn the basic tenets of collaborative learning theory, work together to develop CGGE geographical case studies for the U.S. and India, and plan collaborative research projects. There will be a large number of participants from both countries, including undergraduate and graduate students, early career faculty and senior academics in leadership positions from both the U.S. and South Asia, thereby introducing a whole new generation of students and researchers to topics in international collaborative geography education.

This workshop adds a South Asia component to an ongoing NSF award to the CGGE that uses Internet technology to address the need for American students to obtain international perspectives and high levels of competency in geography in order to understand and appreciate a diverse and interdependent world. Many geographers are convinced that the Internet can help build an integrated international community of scholars dedicated to collaborative research, teaching and multinational learning. The workshop is pivotal in developing virtual collaborations in pedagogy and education research that will be forged between the researchers and educators from the U.S. and South Asia. It will also provide a strong foundation for innovative professional development and learning for geography students and college professors by helping them collaborate across many scales-from the local to the international.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: GEOGRAPHY AND SPATIAL SCIENCES | Award Amount: 218.02K | Year: 2011

The generation of new knowledge in todays highly globalized society requires scientists and scholars, universities, R&D business, and federal agencies to promote international research collaborations as a way to enhance intellectual capacity and increase competitiveness. The Association of American Geographers (AAG) will continue to help geographers in t he United States develop international collaboration through formal activities sponsored by the International Geographic Union (IGU). This award will support 145 United States geographic scholars (72 junior and 73 senior scholars) through partial-travel support to attend IGU Congresses in 2012 and 2016 and three IGU regional conferences in the intervening years. Thirty scholars will attend the IGU Congress in Koln, Germany in 2012, 25 scholars will attend each of the regional conferences in Kyoto, Japan (2013), Krakow, Poland (2014), Moscow, Russia (2015), and 40 scholars will attend the 2016 IGU Congress in Beijing, China. The support provided through this award will provide benefits to individual researchers and the broader geographic community by stimulating scholarly publications; by fostering collaborative, multinational research and improving geographic education. The award also will contribute to human resource development, including international scientific leadership and the broad enrichment of geography and related fields in the U.S.

Widespread participation of U.S. geographers in these International Geographical Union-sponsored conferences will strengthen U.S. ties with international scholars. Early-career scholars are provided professional development opportunities through participation in international events. In follow-up surveys of individuals supported with previous support to IGU conferences, 80 percent of the respondents stated that their teaching activities were enhanced by their participation by their international experiences. Such successes demonstrate that this travel-support program can help develop collaborations that result in a technical knowledge base that can translate research and development into useful applications for solving societal problems. American scholars also are provided with unique opportunities for outreach, positive engagement, and improved research programs through partnerships in the regions where the conferences are help.

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