Makkar H.P.S.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations |
Tran G.,Association Francaise de Zootechnie |
Heuze V.,Association Francaise de Zootechnie |
Giger-Reverdin S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016
Seaweeds are macroalgae, which generally reside in the littoral zone and can be of many different shapes, sizes, colours and composition. They include brown algae (Phaeophyceae), red algae (Rhodophyceae) and green algae (Chlorophyceae). Seaweeds have a long history of use as livestock feed. They have a highly variable composition, depending on the species, time of collection and habitat, and on external conditions such as water temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentration in water. They may contain non-protein nitrogen, resulting in an overestimation of their protein content, and nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors lower than 6.25, normally used for feed ingredients, have been advocated. They contain considerable amount of water. Most essential amino acids are deficient in seaweeds except the sulphur containing amino acids. Seaweeds concentrate minerals from seawater and contain 10-20 times the minerals of land plants. They contain only small amounts of lipids (1-5%), but majority of those lipids are polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Brown seaweeds have been more studied and are more exploited than other algae types for their use in animal feeding because of their large size and ease of harvesting. Brown algae are of lesser nutritional value than red and green algae, due to their lower protein content (up to approx. 14%) and higher mineral content; however brown algae contain a number of bioactive compounds. Red seaweeds are rich in crude protein (up to 50%) and green seaweeds also contain good protein content (up to 30%). Seaweeds contain a number of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides. Brown algae contain alginates, sulphated fucose-containing polymers and laminarin; red algae contain agars, carrageenans, xylans, sulphated galactans and porphyrans; and green algae contain xylans and sulphated galactans. In ruminants, step-wise increase in the levels of seaweeds in the diet may enable rumen microbes to adapt and thus enhance energy availability from these complex carbohydrates. In monogastrics, those polysaccharides may impact the nutritional value but the addition of enzyme cocktails might help. In vivo studies on ruminants, pigs, poultry and rabbits reveal that some seaweeds have the potential to contribute to the protein and energy requirements of livestock, while others contain a number of bioactive compounds, which could be used as prebiotic for enhancing production and health status of both monogastric and ruminant livestock. Seaweeds tend to accumulate heavy metals (arsenic), iodine and other minerals, and feeding such seaweeds could deteriorate animal and human health. Regular monitoring of minerals in seaweeds would prevent toxic and other undesirable situations. © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Archimede H.,Ur0143 Unite Of Recherches Zootechniques |
Bastianelli D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Bastianelli D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Bastianelli D.,Montpellier SupAgro |
And 4 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011
Availability and sources of variation in the feed value of tropical plant resources and agro-industry by-products were studied. There is a large diversity of feed resources (grass, legume, fodder trees, grains, tubers, co-culture, by-products of agro-industries) reflecting the great diversity of more or less intensified farming systems that includes feeding the different crops to livestock at variable levels. Feeds may be identical to those (soybean, corn) used in temperate zones, especially in modern farms. They can also be classified by their botanical origin (sorghum, tubers, fodder, and fodder trees), their composition (frequent presence of secondary metabolites) and treatment technology (agro-products from artisanal food) that they have suffered. There is great variability between and within feed value of resources. Whatever the animal species, high energy value resources, similar or close to temperate counterparts, are available. In contrast, the many protein-resources have values that do not «compete» with soybeans. Specific strategies to use certain resources are necessary because of the presence of secondary metabolites with antinutritional activities. Intra resource, management (fodder age, feeding strategy...) and the technology used (elimination of antinutritional factors, method of oil extraction from oilseeds, processing of cereal grains) induces variabilities that affect both the energy and protein values and that are often higher than those resulting from genetic origins. High feed value resources are available in the tropics provided that one applies the proper management and chooses the right animal species for their valorsiation. The accumulated information on the feed value of tropical resources is abundant. Access to data is not always easy because the publication strategies are often focused on a regional scale. Information can be partial (some criteria of chemical composition). The results can be strongly linked to the context in which they were produced, which limits their generalisation. An important step for the future is the collection of these data with the prospect of generating such general laws. This would be possible through the current FV table project (AFZ-INRA-CIRAD).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-01a-2014 | Award Amount: 9.93M | Year: 2015
Feed-a-Gene aims to better adapt different components of monogastric livestock production systems (i.e., pigs, poultry and rabbits) to improve the overall efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. This involves the development of new and alternative feed resources and feed technologies, the identification and selection of robust animals that are better adapted to fluctuating conditions, and the development of feeding techniques that allow optimizing the potential of the feed and the animal. To reach this overall objective, the project will: - Develop new and alternative feeds and feed technologies to make better use of local feed resources, green biomass and by-products of the food and biofuel industry. - Develop methods for the real-time characterization of the nutritional value of feeds to better use and adapt diets to animal requirements. - Develop new traits of feed efficiency and robustness allowing identification of individual variability to select animals that are more adapted to changes in feed and environmental conditions. - Develop biological models of livestock functioning to better understand and predict nutrient and energy utilization of animals along their productive trajectory. - Develop new management systems for precision feeding and precision farming combining data and knowledge from the feed, the animal, and the environment using innovative monitoring systems, feeders, and decision support tools. - Evaluate the overall sustainability of new management systems developed by the project. - Demonstrate the innovative technologies developed by the project in collaboration with partners from the feed industry, breeding companies, equipment manufacturers, and farmers organisations to promote the practical implementation of project results. - Disseminate new technologies that will increase animal production efficiency, whilst maintaining product quality and animal welfare and enhance EU food security to relevant stakeholders.
Makkar H.P.S.,Animal Production and Health Division |
Tran G.,Association Francaise de Zootechnie |
Heuze V.,Association Francaise de Zootechnie |
Ankers P.,Animal Production and Health Division
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014
A 60-70% increase in consumption of animal products is expected by 2050. This increase in the consumption will demand enormous resources, the feed being the most challenging because of the limited availability of natural resources, ongoing climatic changes and food-feed-fuel competition. The costs of conventional feed resources such as soymeal and fishmeal are very high and moreover their availability in the future will be limited. Insect rearing could be a part of the solutions. Although some studies have been conducted on evaluation of insects, insect larvae or insect meals as an ingredient in the diets of some animal species, this field is in infancy. Here we collate, synthesize and discuss the available information on five major insect species studied with respect to evaluation of their products as animal feed. The nutritional quality of black soldier fly larvae, the house fly maggots, mealworm, locusts-grasshoppers-crickets, and silkworm meal and their use as a replacement of soymeal and fishmeal in the diets of poultry, pigs, fish species and ruminants are discussed. The crude protein contents of these alternate resources are high: 42-63% and so are the lipid contents (up to 36% oil), which could possibly be extracted and used for various applications including biodiesel production. Unsaturated fatty acid concentrations are high in housefly maggot meal, mealworm and house cricket (60-70%), while their concentrations in black soldier fly larvae are lowest (19-37%). The studies have confirmed that palatability of these alternate feeds to animals is good and they can replace 25-100% of soymeal or fishmeal depending on the animal species. Except silkworm meal other insect meals are deficient in methionine and lysine and their supplementation in the diet can enhance both the performance of the animals and the soymeal and fishmeal replacement rates. Most insect meals are deficient in Ca and its supplementation in the diet is also required, especially for growing animals and laying hens. The levels of Ca and fatty acids in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the substrate on which insects are reared. The paper also presents future areas of research. The information synthesized is expected to open new avenues for a large scale use of insect products as animal feed. © 2014 Harinder P.S. Makkar.