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Hashimoto S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital | Hashimoto S.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Karasawa K.,Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital | Fujita Y.,Tohoku University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Radiation Research

When a brass compensator is set in a treatment beam, beam hardening may take place. This variation of the energy spectrum may affect the accuracy of dose calculation by a treatment planning system and the results of dose measurement of brass compensator intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In addition, when X-rays pass the compensator, scattered photons are generated within the compensator. Scattered photons may affect the monitor unit (MU) calculation. In this study, to evaluate the variation of dose distribution by the compensator, dose distribution was measured and energy spectrum was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. To investigate the influence of beam hardening for dose measurement using an ionization chamber, the beam quality correction factor was determined. Moreover, to clarify the effect of scattered photons generated within the compensator for the MU calculation, the head scatter factor was measured and energy spectrum analyses were performed. As a result, when X-rays passed the brass compensator, beam hardening occurred and dose distribution was varied. The variation of dose distribution and energy spectrum was larger with decreasing field size. This means that energy spectrum should be reproduced correctly to obtain high accuracy of dose calculation for the compensator IMRT. On the other hand, the influence of beam hardening on kQ was insignificant. Furthermore, scattered photons were generated within the compensator, and scattered photons affect the head scatter factor. These results show that scattered photons must be taken into account for MU calculation for brass compensator IMRT. © 2012 The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Source

Kase Y.,Proton Therapy | Yamashita W.,Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine | Matsufuji N.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Takada K.,University of Tsukuba | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Radiation Research

The authors attempt to establish the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculation for designing therapeutic proton beams on the basis of microdosimetry. The tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) was used to measure microdosimetric lineal energy spectra for proton beams at various depths in a water phantom. An RBE-weighted absorbed dose is defined as an absorbed dose multiplied by an RBE for cell death of human salivary gland (HSG) tumor cells in this study. The RBE values were calculated by a modified microdosimetric kinetic model using the biological parameters for HSG tumor cells. The calculated RBE distributions showed a gradual increase to about 1cm short of a beam range and a steep increase around the beam range for both the mono-energetic and spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beams. The calculated RBE values were partially compared with a biological experiment in which the HSG tumor cells were irradiated by the SOBP beam except around the distal end. The RBE-weighted absorbed dose distribution for the SOBP beam was derived from the measured spectra for the mono-energetic beam by a mixing calculation, and it was confirmed that it agreed well with that directly derived from the microdosimetric spectra measured in the SOBP beam. The absorbed dose distributions to planarize the RBE-weighted absorbed dose were calculated in consideration of the RBE dependence on the prescribed absorbed dose and cellular radio-sensitivity. The results show that the microdosimetric measurement for the mono-energetic proton beam is also useful for designing RBE-weighted absorbed dose distributions for range-modulated proton beams. © 2012 The Author 2012. Source

Hirao Y.,Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine
AIP Conference Proceedings

Basic phenomena in irradiations of X-ray and particle beams and comparison among various radiations are described. Total doses and fractionations for several sites in case of carbon beam are shown in comparison with X-ray and proton beam. Typical results of carbon beam treatments are shown. Original facility was too large. Then, smaller design of 2nd stage facility of carbon therapy was carried out as well as the further technical developments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source

Mizuno H.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Fukumura A.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Fukahori M.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Sakata S.,Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Medical Physics

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a set of correction factors of the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD) output for field size changes and wedge insertions.Methods: Several linear accelerators were used for irradiation of the RGDs. The field sizes were changed from 5×5 cm to 25×25 cm for 4, 6, 10, and 15 MV x-ray beams. The wedge angles were 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. In addition to physical wedge irradiation, nonphysical (dynamic/virtual) wedge irradiations were performed.Results: The obtained data were fitted with a single line for each energy, and correction factors were determined. Compared with ionization chamber outputs, the RGD outputs gradually increased with increasing field size, because of the higher RGD response to scattered low-energy photons. The output increase was about 1% per 10 cm increase in field size, with a slight difference dependent on the beam energy. For both physical and nonphysical wedged beam irradiation, there were no systematic trends in the RGD outputs, such as monotonic increase or decrease depending on the wedge angle change if the authors consider the uncertainty, which is approximately 0.6% for each set of measured points. Therefore, no correction factor was needed for all inserted wedges. Based on this work, postal dose audits using RGDs for the nonreference condition were initiated in 2010. The postal dose audit results between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The mean difference between the measured and stated doses was within 0.5% for all fields with field sizes between 5×5 cm and 25×25 cm and with wedge angles from 15° to 60°. The standard deviations (SDs) of the difference distribution were within the estimated uncertainty (1SD) except for the 25×25 cm field size data, which were not reliable because of poor statistics (n = 16).Conclusions: A set of RGD output correction factors was determined for field size changes and wedge insertions. The results obtained from recent postal dose audits were analyzed, and the mean differences between the measured and stated doses were within 0.5% for every field size and wedge angle. The SDs of the distribution were within the estimated uncertainty, except for one condition that was not reliable because of poor statistics. © 2014 Am. Assoc. Phys. Med. Source

Azangwe G.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Grochowska P.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Georg D.,Medical University of Vienna | Georg D.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Medical Physics

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm2 to 4.2 × 4.2 cm2 and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm2. Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm3 to 0.3 cm3). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials. Results: For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm 3 air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm3 ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm3. Conclusions: The results demonstrate how important it is for the appropriate corrections to be applied to give consistent and accurate measurements for a range of detectors in small beam geometry. The results further demonstrate that depending on the choice of detectors, there is a potential for large errors when effects such as volume averaging, perturbation and differences in material properties of detectors are not taken into account. As the commissioning of small fields for clinical treatment has to rely on accurate dose measurements, the authors recommend the use of detectors that require relatively little correction, such as unshielded diodes, diamond detectors or microchambers, and solid state detectors such as alanine, TLD, Al2O3:C, or scintillators. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

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