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Favre C.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | May J.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | Bosteels D.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | Tromayer J.,University of Graz | Neumann G.,University of Graz
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

To get an overview of the emission situation in the field of small non-road mobile machinery powered by various types of SI engines, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC), together with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics (IVT) of Graz University of Technology, conducted a customized test program. The main goal for this campaign was to derive information regarding the emissions of regulated gaseous components (following European Directive 97/68/EC) as well as particulate matter. With regard to the big variety of different engines that are available on the European and North-American market, the most representative ones had to be chosen. This resulted in a pool of test devices to cover different engine working principles (2-Stroke and 4-Stroke), technological standards (low-cost and professional tools) and different emissions control strategies (advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment). The test results illustrate a wide range of emissions' behaviour depending on engine technologies and testing conditions and can serve as a database of in-field emissions of small handheld applications. Particulate matter emissions were also measured in terms of mass and number and their chemical composition was evaluated via Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis of the PM deposit. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.


Demuynck J.,Ghent University | Bosteels D.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | De Paepe M.,Ghent University | Favre C.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Past investigations have shown that the current type-approval test cycles are not representative for real-world vehicle usage. Consequently, the emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicles are underestimated. Therefore, a new cycle is being developed in the UNECE framework (World-harmonised Light-duty Test Procedure, WLTP), aiming at a more dynamic and worldwide harmonised test cycle. To provide recommendations for the new cycle, we have analysed the noxious emission results of a test programme of seven vehicles on the test cycles NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) and CADC (Common Artemis Driving Cycles). This paper presents the results of that analysis to show the zones of the cycle that are causing the highest emissions, using two different approaches. Both approaches show that the zones with the highest emissions of modern vehicles differ from vehicle to vehicle. Consequently, a representative test cycle has to contain as many combinations of vehicle speed and acceleration that occur in real-world traffic as possible to prevent that a vehicle does not perform well for certain combinations because they are not included in the test cycle. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates that it is important to include a cold start to ensure rapid warm up of the catalysts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Favre C.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | May J.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | Bosteels D.,Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AECC | Tromayer J.,Graz University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

The European emission legislation for two-wheeler vehicles driven by engines of ≤ 50 cm3 is continuously developing. One of the most important issues in the near future will be the finalisation of the European Commission's proposals for future steps in the emissions regulations as well as the verification of the impacts of current standards on the market. To have a basis for the discussion about these topics, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC) with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics of Graz University of Technology (IVT) carried out an extensive test programme to show the actual emission situation of state-of-the-art mopeds including mass and number of particulate matter as well as unregulated gaseous components. One of the main goals of these tests was to measure exhaust emissions without any modifications to the engines of standard production vehicles available on the European market. The selection of test vehicles was carried out to get the best possible variety of technologies representing the actual situation on the street. To gain a significant overview of the emission situation as well as the potential of different technologies, it was very important to take vehicles from both the two-stroke and the four-stroke segment. Within these main segments the range of vehicles should provide low cost technologies as well as high end solutions for engine control and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Beside the current and proposed future UNECE R47 measurement procedures, the chosen two-wheelers were also operated on the reduced speed WMTC part 1 cycle (1) (this being the closest match available for moped specifications) to evaluate the influence of different testing procedures. Regarding the current regulations in the automotive sector as a possible future prospect for upcoming two-wheeler legislation, the emissions of particulate matter were also considered using a gravimetric measurement method as well as a particle counter to provide information about the mass of particulate and number of particles. Additionally, an FTIR measurement was included to provide information about the composition of the gaseous fraction of the exhaust gas. In respect of the proposed EURO 3 legislation (2) the bag sampling was divided in two parts for all test cycles, being able to weight the results with different factors. Beside this overall measurement, the online recorded data of air/fuel-ratio, exhaust gas temperatures and the development of emissions over cycle time delivers detailed information. Finally, the emitted particulate matter was analyzed with a Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) to identify the mass fraction of organic carbon. The results of the conducted tests show a wide range of different emission results depending on engine technologies and testing conditions and can serve as a good basis for the consideration of the current situation on the street and the examination of proposals for further emission regulations. Copyright © SAE Japan and Copyright © 2011 SAE International.

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