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Sidrim J.J.C.,Federal University of Ceara | Carvalho V.L.,Federal University of Ceara | Castelo-Branco D.S.C.M.,Federal University of Ceara | Brilhante R.S.N.,Federal University of Ceara | And 11 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to characterize the yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees kept in captivity in Brazil. Sterile swabs from the oral cavity, nostrils, genital opening, and rectum of 50 Trichechus inunguis and 26 Trichechus manatus were collected. The samples were plated on Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. The yeasts isolated were phenotypically identified by biochemical and micromorphological tests. Overall, 141 strains were isolated, of which 112 were from T. inunguis (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida famata, Candida krusei, Candida norvegensis, Candida ciferri, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Cryptococcus laurentii) and 29 were from T. manatus (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula minuta, Trichosporon sp.). This was the first systematic study to investigate the importance of yeasts as components of the microbiota of sirenians, demonstrating the presence of potentially pathogenic species, which highlights the importance of maintaining adequate artificial conditions for the health of captive manatees. © 2015 National Research Council of Canada, All Rights Reserved. Source

Di Azevedo M.I.N.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Carvalho V.L.,Associacao de Pesquisa e Preservacao de Ecossistemas Aquaticos AQUASIS | Iniguez A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2014

Anisakid nematodes are parasites with an indirect life cycle, involving many hosts, including cetaceans that act as definitive hosts. Identification at species level is crucial for a better understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of these parasites, but an accurate diagnosis based only on morphology is difficult. In Brazil, genetic characterization of anisakids is still rare, with Anisakis typica and A. physeteris being the only two species identified by genetic markers until now. The definitive hosts of A. nascettii are Mesoplodon grayi, M. bowdoini, M. layardii and M. mirus. Geographical locations of A. nascettii include the coasts of New Zealand, South Africa and Europe. In this study, a nematode was collected from a Gervais' beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus, stranded in Ceará State, north-east Brazil. Genetic analysis based on 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and mtDNA cox2 gene revealed 100% identity with Anisakis sp. U94365, 99% with Anisakis sp. (MP-2005 EU718477 A. nascettii) and 99% with A. nascettii DQ116431, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and cox2 sequences using both neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood methods provided strong support for a clade with only A. nascettii specimens. This study demonstrated for the first time the identification of A. nascettii in the Brazilian Atlantic Coast, revealing a wider geographical distribution of this parasite worldwide and extending the range of its definitive hosts to a new Mesoplodon species, M. europaeus, the Gervais' beaked whale. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 Source

Sidrim J.J.C.,Federal University of Ceara | Carvalho V.L.,Federal University of Ceara | de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco D.,Federal University of Ceara | Brilhante R.S.N.,Federal University of Ceara | And 10 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2016

This work aimed at evaluating the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by Candida spp. isolated from sirenians in Brazil. The isolates (n = 105) were recovered from the natural cavities of Amazonian and West Indian manatees and were tested for the susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole and for the production of phospholipases, proteases, and biofilm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amphotericin B ranged from 0.03 to 1 µg/mL, and no resistant isolates were detected. Itraconazole and fluconazole MICs ranged from 0.03 to 16 µg/mL and from 0.125 to 64 µg/mL, respectively, and 35.2% (37/105) of the isolates were resistant to at least one of these azole drugs. Concerning the production of virulence factors, phospholipase activity was observed in 67.6% (71/105) of the isolates, while protease activity and biofilm production were detected in 50.5% (53/105) and 32.4% (34/105) of the isolates, respectively. Since the natural cavities of manatees are colonized by resistant and virulent strains of Candida spp., these animals can act as sources of resistance and virulence genes for the environment, conspecifics and other animal species, demonstrating the potential environmental impacts associated with their release back into their natural habitat. © 2016 International Association for Ecology and Health Source

Borges J.C.G.,University of Pernambuco | Jung L.M.,Fundacao Mamiferos Aquaticos FMA | Carvalho V.L.,Associacao de Pesquisa e Preservacao de Ecossistemas Aquaticos AQUASIS | De Oliveira Moreira A.L.,Fundacao Mamiferos Aquaticos FMA | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2016

Currently, little is known about the helminth fauna in sirenian species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the frequency of infection by Pulmonicola cochleotrema in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus), in the North-eastern region of Brazil. Between the years of 1989 and 2014, 88 manatees found on the North-eastern Brazilian coast were clinically examined. They included animals that were found dead, animals maintained in captivity and specimens reintroduced into conservation areas. During their physical examination, helminths present in necropsied carcasses and in reintroduced animals were collected, as well as faecal samples. Parasites were detected in 7.95% (7/88) of the animals; all specimens collected being identified as P. cochleotrema. Only adult manatees were infected, and in two cases clinical signs were observed. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. cochleotrema in Antillean manatees in the states of Paraíba and Sergipe, in the North-eastern coast of Brazil. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2016 Source

Di Azevedo M.I.N.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Knoff M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Carvalho V.L.,Associacao de Pesquisa e Preservacao de Ecossistemas Aquaticos AQUASIS | Mello W.N.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2015

Anisakid nematodes have been identified in a wide variety of fish and marine mammal species. In Brazil, Anisakis physeteris, A. insignis, A. typica, A. nascetti, and those of the A. simplex complex have been reported infecting fishes and cetaceans. In this study, specimens collected from a dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the northeastern coast of Brazil were identified through morphological and genetic analyses as A. paggiae. Anisakids were examined through differential interference contrast light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological and morphometric analysis revealed that these specimens belonged to Anisakis sp. clade II and more specifically to A. paggiae, exhibiting a violin-shaped ventriculus and 3 denticulate caudal plates, which are taxonomic characters considered unique to this species. Genetic analysis based on the mtDNA cox2 gene confirmed our identification of A. paggiae. Phylo genetic trees using both maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods revealed a strongly supported monophyletic clade (bootstrap support = 100%) with all available A. paggiae se quen ces. Integrative taxonomic analysis allowed the identification of A. paggiae for the first time in Brazilian waters, providing new data about their geographical distribution. Moreover, here we present the first SEM images of this species. © Inter-Research 2015. Source

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