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Iamanaka B.T.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira A.A.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Teixeira A.R.R.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The quality of coffee beverage is influenced by several factors, including the species or botanical variety of the beans, agricultural practices, harvesting, drying and storage techniques and also the preparation of the beverage. Apart from these, there is the input of microbial contamination during the processing of the beans. Numerous studies have demonstrated that fungi are important contaminants of coffee beans, especially just after harvesting and drying. However, the relationship between fungal contamination and the sensorial characteristics of the beverage has yet to be described. The aim of this research was to analyze the mycobiota of coffee beans collected from different stages of the coffee production chain and to correlate these data with the sensorial characteristics of the final beverage. Fungal infection of 22 coffee bean samples from the southwest of São Paulo state was analyzed. Samples were collected from the tree (mature cherries), from the ground, from the patio (mature, immature and dried floaters or overripe cherries from the tree) and from storage facilities. In general, coffee samples from this region showed high fungal infection and contamination was higher than 70% in about 45% of the samples. A high diversity of fungi was isolated from all the coffee samples analyzed and the most common were Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium sp. nov. (closely related to Penicillium crustosum) and Fusarium sp. Both P. brevicompactum and Penicillium sp. nov. were found at all processing stages, including in the cherries, showing that these fungi are naturally found in the coffee beans from this region. Floater coffee and coffee from the ground showed negative sensorial evaluation with attributes such as moldy, dirty and fermented and presented a high contamination by Aspergillus section Nigri and Aspergillus westerdijikiae. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Taniwaki M.H.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira A.A.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Teixeira A.R.R.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Defective coffee beans may contain toxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA) and other compounds which affect health. In the present work two coffee producing regions were studied: Cerrado in Minas Gerais and Sorocabana in São Paulo State, with the objective of verifying the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA in the main defective coffee beans. Coffee samples were surface disinfected and plated directly onto Dichloran Glycerol Agar. Fungal species were isolated and identified. The coffee samples were analyzed for OTA and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipment. Aspergillus westerdijkiae and Aspergillus section Nigri were found in both regions, while Aspergillus carbonarius only in Cerrado-MG, especially in defective coffee beans. The sour and black defective beans had the highest OTA concentration being 11.3. μg/kg and 25.7. μg/kg, respectively. In the defective green (immature) beans, although having the highest proportion (38%), the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA was low. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Iamanaka B.T.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira A.A.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Teixeira A.R.R.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The quality of coffee beverage is influenced by several factors, including the species or botanical variety of the beans, agricultural practices, harvesting, drying and storage techniques and also the preparation of the beverage. Apart from these, there is the input of microbial contamination during the processing of the beans. Numerous studies have demonstrated that fungi are important contaminants of coffee beans, especially just after harvesting and drying. However, the relationship between fungal contamination and the sensorial characteristics of the beverage has yet to be described. The aim of this research was to analyze the mycobiota of coffee beans collected from different stages of the coffee production chain and to correlate these data with the sensorial characteristics of the final beverage. Fungal infection of 22 coffee bean samples from the southwest of São Paulo state was analyzed. Samples were collected from the tree (mature cherries), from the ground, from the patio (mature, immature and dried floaters or overripe cherries from the tree) and from storage facilities. In general, coffee samples from this region showed high fungal infection and contamination was higher than 70% in about 45% of the samples. A high diversity of fungi was isolated from all the coffee samples analyzed and the most common were Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium sp. nov. (closely related to Penicillium crustosum) and Fusarium sp. Both P. brevicompactum and Penicillium sp. nov. were found at all processing stages, including in the cherries, showing that these fungi are naturally found in the coffee beans from this region. Floater coffee and coffee from the ground showed negative sensorial evaluation with attributes such as moldy, dirty and fermented and presented a high contamination by Aspergillus section Nigri and Aspergillus westerdijikiae. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Iamanaka B.T.,Food Technology Institute | Teixeira A.A.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Teixeira A.R.R.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Vicente E.,Food Technology Institute | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME-GC-MS. Different VCs that may interfere in the coffee beverage quality were detected in the raw coffee beans inoculated with these fungal species (mainly A. luchuensis). Oct-1-en-3-ol was detected in the raw coffee inoculated with A. luchuensis. This compound, which is characterized by earthy and moldy/mushroom aroma, can be related to negative characteristics of coffee beverage in sensory analysis. On the other hand, the presence of some fungal species in the coffee, even at a high percentage of infection, did not necessarily result in loss of the sensorial quality of the beverage, since the samples with a high infection of P. brevicompactum showed positive sensory evaluation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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