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Witjaksono J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Witjaksono J.,Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology | Wei X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Mao S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
China Agricultural Economic Review | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the economic performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton worldwide based on a wide range of data and source from available literature, and second to assess yield gain and economic performance.Design/methodology/approach - A systematic review was captured to provide the evidence of potential benefits of GM cotton. A country-specific analysis was conducted in order to compare economic indicators and employed meta-analysis to find out the significance of the different of GM cotton over its counterpart.Findings - This paper depicts positive impact of commercialized GM cotton in terms of net revenue, and the benefits, especially in terms of increased yields, are greatest for the mostly farmers in developing countries who have benefitted from the spill over of technology targeted at farmers in industrialized countries.Research limitations/implications - Due to the variability of the data which came from different methodologies, it is difficult to determine the differences of the performances each individual study.Practical implications - This, it is believed that results from this study can be useful for operations of all sizes as the authors think about what needs to be focussed on for long-term producers survival.Originality/value - The paper clearly indicates that China is the highest cotton yield of GM cotton, the lowest cost of GM seed and the lowest cost of chemical spray compare to any other countries. Therefore, this is the fact that the adoption of GM cotton has been widely spread among the farmers across the regions in China.

Purbiati T.,Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology | Supriyanto A.,Research Institute for Citrus and Subtropical Fruit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

'SoE' is the best mandarin variety in Indonesia. This mandarin that come from the province of East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia has characteristic orange rind color, easy to peel, sweet and sour balanced taste, but short storage life. The study aimed to find best harvesting and storage method for mandarin fruit 'SoE'. The treatments were 1) fruits were harvested by clipping which include a part of fruit stalk and stored at room temperature; 2) fruits were picked by hand without stalk of fruit and stored at room temperature; 3) fruits were harvested by clipping include a part of fruit stalk and stored in a cool box at temperature of 20°C; and 4) fruits were picked by hand without stalk of fruit and stored in cool box at a temperature of 20°C. Harvested fruits were transported to the laboratory of the Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of East Java. The study was done in Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications each with 4 fruits. Ater 12 d storage in a cool box, fruits harvested with or without stalk and stored at 20°C had lower weight loss and shrinkage than those stored at room temperature. Weight loss of fruit stored in cool box and at room temperature ranged from 4-5 and 18-21%, respectively. Fruit with intact stalk were less prone to fungal infection during storage than those without fruit stalk. © ISHS 2013.

Butler J.R.A.,CSIRO | Bohensky E.L.,CSIRO | Suadnya W.,University of Mataram | Yanuartati Y.,University of Mataram | And 8 more authors.
Climate Risk Management | Year: 2016

Few studies have examined how to mainstream future climate change uncertainty into decision-making for poverty alleviation in developing countries. With potentially drastic climate change emerging later this century, there is an imperative to develop planning tools which can enable vulnerable rural communities to proactively build adaptive capacity and 'leap-frog' the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Using an example from Indonesia, we present a novel participatory approach to achieve this. We applied scenario planning to operationalise four adaptation pathways principles: (1) consideration of climate change as a component of multi-scale social-ecological systems; (2) recognition of stakeholders' competing values, goals and knowledge through co-learning; (3) coordination of responses across multiple decision-making levels; and (4) identification of strategies which are 'no regrets', incremental (tackling proximate drivers of community vulnerability) and transformative (tackling systemic drivers). Workshops with stakeholders from different administrative levels identified drivers of change, an aspirational vision and explorative scenarios for livelihoods in 2090, and utilised normative back-casting to design no regrets adaptation strategies needed to achieve the vision. The resulting 'tapestry' of strategies were predominantly incremental, and targeted conventional development needs. Few directly addressed current or possible future climate change impacts. A minority was transformative, and higher level stakeholders identified proportionately more transformative strategies than local level stakeholders. Whilst the vast majority of strategies were no regrets, some were potentially mal-adaptive, particularly for coastal areas and infrastructure. There were few examples of transformative innovations that could generate a step-change in linked human and environmental outcomes, hence leap-frogging the SDGs. We conclude that whilst effective at integrating future uncertainties into community development planning, our approach should place greater emphasis on analysing and addressing systemic drivers through extended learning cycles. © 2015.

Butler J.R.A.,CSIRO | Suadnya W.,University of Mataram | Puspadi K.,Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology | Sutaryono Y.,University of Mataram | And 16 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2014

In developing countries adaptation responses to climate and global change should be integrated with human development to generate no regrets, co-benefit strategies for the rural poor, but there are few examples of how to achieve this. The adaptation pathways approach provides a potentially useful decision-making framework because it aims to steer societies towards sustainable futures by accounting for complex systems, uncertainty and contested multi-stakeholder arenas, and by maintaining adaptation options. Using Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia, as an example we consider whether generic justifications for adaptation pathways are tenable in the local context of climate and global change, rural poverty and development. Interviews and focus groups held with a cross-section of provincial leaders showed that the causes of community vulnerability are indeed highly complex and dynamic, influenced by 20 interacting drivers, of which climate variability and change are only two. Climate change interacts with population growth and ecosystem degradation to reduce land, water and food availability. Although poverty is resilient due to corruption, traditional institutions and fatalism, there is also considerable system flux due to decentralisation, modernisation and erosion of traditional culture. Together with several thresholds in drivers, potential shocks and paradoxes, these characteristics result in unpredictable system trajectories. Decision-making is also contested due to tensions around formal and informal leadership, corruption, community participation in planning and female empowerment. Based on this context we propose an adaptation pathways approach which can address the proximate and systemic causes of vulnerability and contested decision-making. Appropriate participatory processes and governance structures are suggested, including integrated livelihoods and multi-scale systems analysis, scenario planning, adaptive co-management and 'livelihood innovation niches'. We briefly discuss how this framing of adaptation pathways would differ from one in the developed context of neighbouring Australia, including the influence of the province's island geography on the heterogeneity of livelihoods and climate change, the pre-eminence and rapid change of social drivers, and the necessity to 'leap-frog' the Millennium Development Goals by mid-century to build adaptive capacity for imminent climate change impacts. © 2013.

Wise R.M.,CSIRO | Butler J.R.A.,CSIRO | Suadnya W.,University of Mataram | Puspadi K.,Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology | And 2 more authors.
Climate Risk Management | Year: 2016

Achieving climate compatible development (CCD) is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1) 'no regrets' and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2) address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3) linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies' objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions) yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver 'soft' adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services). Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political) drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly coordinated and had a higher risk of mal-adaptation. We conclude that the approach is effective for screening and prioritising no regrets CCD, but more extensive learning processes are necessary to build decision-makers' capacity to tackle systemic drivers, and to scrutinise potentially mal-adaptive infrastructural investments. © 2015 The Authors.

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