ASSELDOR

La Tour-du-Pin, France
La Tour-du-Pin, France

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Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fortun-Lamothe L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Fortun-Lamothe L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2012

The feeding schedule of geese for the production of "foie gras" requires many changes of ingestion rhythms and the nature of food. The aim of this review was, after presenting the anatomy, nutritional requirements, growth and dietary behavior of the animals, to identify the causes and possible solutions needed for the overfeeding period. Indeed, in order to prepare the geese to receive a large amount of food in a short period (overfeeding period), the geese are subjected throughout their life to different feed changes and access time to feeders in order to increase their intake capacity. At each transition phase, reductions in consumption are frequently observed, which leads to a heterogeneity between batches and to reduced animal performance. The management of these transitions has to confront the behavioral and digestive adaptation capacities of the animals when they are faced with changes in sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of food: color, texture, particle size, water retention, nutrient composition, nature of starch (amylopectin / amylose). The management of these transitions consists in finding a compromise between the food preferences of animals and their preparation for the overfeeding period for "foie gras" production.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Dubois J.P.,ASSELDOR | And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

The aim of this trial was to study the influence of feed form on the performance, gizzard development and carcass traits of growing geese. Between 42 and 98 days of age, 360 geese (type Maxipalm®) were fed a diet containing 500 g sorghum/kg (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy 12.6 MJ/kg, 15.1 g/kg CP). Birds were divided into three groups differing in feed form: complete pellets (Control group, n = 120); a coarse-ground meal (CG group, n = 120); or a mixture containing protein-rich pellets and sorghum whole grains (M group, n = 120). Feed intake per pen (40 birds/pen) was measured weekly between 42 and 98 days of age, and individual live weight (LW) was measured every 2 weeks. At 84 and 98 days of age, 12 birds were slaughtered in each group to measure the gizzard development and body traits. Irrespective of the goose sex, LW at 98 days was lower for the CG group than for the Control group (5555 v. 5888 g, P < 0.05 for males and 5039 v. 5215 g, P < 0.05 for females). The feed intake over the entire period was 5.5% higher in the M group (P < 0.05) than in the Control and CG groups but the feed conversion ratio (6.91, P > 0.05) was similar in the three groups. The gizzard development (as % of LW) was higher in birds of the CG group than those of the Control and M groups at 84 days of age (+13.98% and +13.51%, respectively; P < 0.05) but was similar in all three groups at 98 days of age (4.01%, P > 0.05). The relative liver development was lower in the birds of the CG group than those of the other two groups at 84 and 98 days of age (-20%, P < 0.001 and-10%, P < 0.05, respectively). The other body traits were similar in the three groups at both 84 and 98 days of age. The present results suggest that a simplified diet presented in the form of a mixture of sorghum whole grains and protein-rich pellets did not reduce the performance of growing geese. © 2012 The Animal Consortium.


Arroyo J.,ASSELDOR | Dubois J.P.,ASSELDOR | Lavigne F.,ASSELDOR | Brachet M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this trial was to study the effects of replacing yellow corn (C) with condensed tannin-free sorghum (S) during the finishing period (F period; age 53 to 79 d) and/or overfeeding period (O period; age 80 to 91 d) on the performance of overfed mule ducks. 192 ducks were divided into 4 groups (48 in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the F and/or the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: SS, SC, CS, CC. At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and magret qualities. Mortality (1%; P > 0.05) and weight gain (2,030 g; P > 0.05) during the O period were similar in the 4 groups. At the end of the O period, birds overfed with sorghum had foie gras that was heavier (723 vs. 694 g in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.05) and less yellow (24.40 vs. 38.59 for b∗ in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001) than birds overfed with corn. Fat loss during foie gras cooking was similar in the 4 groups (18%; P > 0.05), but the foie gras was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum (14.84 vs. 26.01 for b∗ in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). Weight of magret was similar in the 4 groups (491 g, P > 0.05) but the color of the breast muscle and skin of magret was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum compared with corn (12.26 vs. 12.92 and 13.84 vs. 18.30 in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the replacement of yellow corn with sorghum during finishing and/or overfeeding is possible and useful in a mule duck foie gras production system because it increases foie gras weight without decreasing the weight of magret. However, it changes the quality of the products, mainly their color. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Auvergne A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 9 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this trial was to study the effects of substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the growing-finishing (G period), overfeeding (O period), or both periods on magret and foie gras quality in geese. In total, 260 ganders were divided into 4 groups (65 birds in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the G and the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The groups differed in the nature of the cereal in the diet offered to birds between 44 and 104 d of age (G period: a diet containing 500 g of sorghum/ kg (SS and SC groups) or a diet containing 500 g of yellow corn/kg (CS and CC groups). The groups differed also in the diet offered to birds between 105 and 120 d of age (O period): 967 g of yellow corn/kg (SC and CC groups) or 965 g of sorghum/kg (SS and CS groups). At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and breast muscle weight, color, and chemical composition. The mortality in the SC group was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other 3 groups (14.29 vs. 3.58%, average of the 3 groups). After overfeeding, birds fed with sorghum had foie gras that were heavier 984 vs. 885 g, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and less yellow (18.03 vs. 23.97 for b*, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively, P < 0.001) than birds fed with corn. The substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the G and O periods (SS group) increased the weight of the foie gras, but altered its color to a paler yellow. In contrast, a substitution during the G period only (SC group) resulted in increased mortality during the O period. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Auvergne A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this trial was to study the effects of cereal (corn or sorghum) and of the presentation of the diet (pelleted diet or a mixture with cereal) on the performance of geese. In total, 480 one-day-old geese were divided into 4 groups differing in the diet they received between 52 and 102 d of age: a pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (CS group; AMEn 11.29 MJ/kg, CP 16.70%); a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (MS group; AMEn 11.61 MJ/kg, CP 14.30%); a pelleted diet containing 500 g of corn/kg (group CC; AMEn 11.33 MJ/kg, CP 16.40%); and a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of corn mash/kg (group MC; AMEn 11.48 MJ/kg, CP 14.50%). From 102 to 117 d, 33 birds/sex/group were force-fed with corn. Between 52 and 102 d of age, individual BW and collective feed intake (40 birds/pen) were measured weekly. Body traits were measured at 69, 96, and 117 d and the volume of the crop was measured at 102 d of age. The cereal had no significant effect on total feed intake (15,028 g, NS) or BW (5,811 g, NS) but the breast development at 102 d was less in birds fed sorghum compared with corn (-4.9%; P < 0.05). Feed intake (+8.4% between 69 and 102 d; P < 0.001), BW (+3.9%; P < 0.001) and gut development (+9.3%; P < 0.001) were higher when the diet was offered as a mixture compared with a complete pelleted diet. The birds fed the complete pelleted diets had a larger crop (+10.1%; P < 0.05) than others. The cereal and the presentation of the diet had no effect on the body traits at the end of the force feeding. The results suggest that the use of sorghum whole seeds is interesting for feeding geese. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fortun-Lamothe L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Fortun-Lamothe L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

We studied the environmental consequences of cereal choice and form of presentation of the diet given to geese reared for foie gras production. A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the production of 1 kg of foie gras was used to examine several feeding strategies for substituting maize by sorghum: during the growing-finishing and/or overfeeding period; in a complete pelleted diet or as whole grains. The data come from in-field management practices on representative French goose farms for the breeding, hatching and slaughtering stages of production, and in vivo experiments for the growing-finishing and overfeeding stages. The impact categories were calculated using the CML2 baseline method. Our data showed that the effects of cereal type on the environmental impact of foie gras were dependent on feed level and stage of inclusion. Birds fed exclusively with sorghum during both the growing-finishing period and the overfeeding period had lower environmental impacts than birds fed with maize, for all the potential impacts calculated (e.g. -17% for global warming potential). A diet presented in a simplified form during the growing-finishing period had no effect on foie gras impacts when the cereal used was maize (difference between groups <7%), but increased them when it was sorghum (from +16% for water use to +22% eutrophication and acidification potential), due to higher bird mortality during the overfeeding period. These results suggest that changes in bird feeding practices could contribute to a more environmentally-friendly production system for foie gras if animal performance is note reduced. Hence, substitution of maize by sorghum can lessen the environmental impacts of foie gras production and thus offer a valuable alternative in response to water shortages in southern France, but its use in a simplified form hinges on prior improvement of rearing practices to limit subsequent mortality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Auvergne A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

Feeding has high economic and environmental costs in poultry production. The feeding of waterfowl for fatty liver production is largely based on the use of maize as an energy source. The aim of this trial was to study the effect of the form of presentation (whole grain or flour) and the amount (40.5, 56, or 100%, depending on the form) of sorghum in the overfeeding diet on the performance of geese. During overfeeding, a diet mainly composed of sorghum reduced the FCR of the geese and increased the weight of fatty liver, but reduced their commercial grading. The use of sorghum during geese overfeeding offers interesting prospects for a more sustainable fatty liver production system. Indeed, it could reduce the environmental effect of goose feeding while improving the flexibility of production systems, making it possible to use a cereal other than maize for overfeeding. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc.


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Auvergne A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this trial was to study the influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and BW of growing geese. In total, 252 one-day-old geese (Anser anser) were divided into 2 groups differing in the form of diet they received between 42 and 98 d of age (AMEn 11.55 MJ/kg, CP 16%): a complete pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (control group) or a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (mixed group). Feed intake was measured daily from 42 to 48 d and every 3 d from 49 to 98 d. Individual BW was measured weekly from 42 to 98 d. Goose behavior was monitored by the scan sampling method throughout the experiment, which was divided into 5 periods according to the timing of access to feed: period 1 from 42 to 55 d (ad libitum feeding access), period 2 from 56 to 62 d (2 + 2 h feeding access), period 3 from 63 to 70 d (2 h feeding access), period 4 from 71 to 94 d (1 h feeding access), and period 5 from 95 to 97 d (3 h feeding access). Over the whole period, the feed intake (13,968 and 14,480 g) and the feed conversion ratio (8.53 and 8.15) were similar in both groups (P = 0.112 and P = 0.168; respectively). Body weight was similar in both groups from 42 to 91 d of age, but at 98 d of age, BW was 3.7% lower in the control than in the mixed group (P = 0.006). Goose behavior was influenced by period, because the percentage of birds feeding increased when the daily access time to the feed decreased (P < 0.001), but not by group (P > 0.05). The results suggest that a loose-mix feeding could be recommended in feeding of growing geese because it weakly influences their feed behavior but slightly increases their weight at the end of the growing period. ©2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


PubMed | National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse and ASSELDOR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

The aim of this trial was to study the effects of replacing yellow corn (C) with condensed tannin-free sorghum (S) during the finishing period (F period; age 53 to 79 d) and/or overfeeding period (O period; age 80 to 91 d) on the performance of overfed mule ducks. 192 ducks were divided into 4 groups (48 in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the F and/or the O periods, using a 2 2 factorial arrangement of treatments : SS, SC, CS, CC. At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and magret qualities. Mortality (1%; P > 0.05) and weight gain (2,030 g; P > 0.05) during the O period were similar in the 4 groups. At the end of the O period, birds overfed with sorghum had foie gras that was heavier (723 vs. 694 g in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.05) and less yellow (24.40 vs. 38.59 for b* in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001) than birds overfed with corn. Fat loss during foie gras cooking was similar in the 4 groups (18%; P > 0.05), but the foie gras was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum (14.84 vs. 26.01 for b* in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). Weight of magret was similar in the 4 groups (491 g, P > 0.05) but the color of the breast muscle and skin of magret was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum compared with corn (12.26 vs. 12.92 and 13.84 vs. 18.30 in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the replacement of yellow corn with sorghum during finishing and/or overfeeding is possible and useful in a mule duck foie gras production system because it increases foie gras weight without decreasing the weight of magret However, it changes the quality of the products, mainly their color.


PubMed | National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse and ASSELDOR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2014

The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P > 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P > 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes.

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