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Brachet M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Brachet M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Arroyo J.,ASSELDOR | Bannelier C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Twenty-four raw materials, harvested or produced in 2013 and commonly used in animal feed, were used to measure their hydration capacities through both water-holding capacity (WHC, g H2O/g DM after 24h of water addition) and swelling capacity (SC, mL H2O/g DM during 60min after water addition, every 5min during the first 30min and then every 10min). The raw materials were provided in the form of whole seeds (F1 class; n =8), flour/mash/hulls (F2 class, n =8) or pellets (F3 class, n =9). Hydration capacities were measured for unprocessed material and also after grinding of whole seeds (1, 3, 5 or 8mm grid). The raw materials were analysed for fibre content to study the relation with WHC and SC. Moreover, WHC and SC were measured on twenty-eight compound pelleted feeds containing some of the raw materials studied in the present experiment, harvested or produced in the same year (i.e. 2013; Experimental feeds; n =8) or in an earlier year (i.e. <2013; Reference feeds; n =20) to evaluate additivity and predictability of these criteria. WHC and SC at 60min (T60) varied greatly among the raw materials (2.88±1.74g H2O/g DM and 2.61±2.37mL H2O/g DM, respectively; P <0.001) and are weakly correlated (R 2 =0.52; P <0.001). They are thus two complementary measurements interesting in feed formulation. The physical form of the raw materials at the moment of delivery had a significant effect on WHC (0.97, 4.92 and 3.65g H2O/g DM in the F1, F2 and F3 classes, respectively; P <0.001). Grinding the seeds had a significant effect on WHC and SC values (P <0.001). WHC and SC at T60 were moderately correlated with the fibre content: neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), hemicellulose and cellulose content (R 2 <0.40 and P <0.01 the same for every fibre fraction). In the eight Experimental feeds, the correlation between calculated SC and measured SC at T60 was low (R 2 =0.38; P =0.104). Conversely, the correlation between calculated WHC and measured WHC was high (R 2 =0.89 and R 2 =0.81; in the Experimental and the Reference feeds, respectively; P <0.001) and the mean difference between the predicted WHC and the measured WHC was moderate (9.7% and 10.6%, respectively for Experimental and Reference feeds), but could reach high values (>15%), especially when measured WHC was high. In conclusion, hydration capacity could be considered as additive, however, the theoretical values of pelleted compound feeds should be supported by real measurements. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Auvergne A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Dubois J.P.,ASSELDOR | And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

The aim of this trial was to study the influence of feed form on the performance, gizzard development and carcass traits of growing geese. Between 42 and 98 days of age, 360 geese (type Maxipalm®) were fed a diet containing 500 g sorghum/kg (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy 12.6 MJ/kg, 15.1 g/kg CP). Birds were divided into three groups differing in feed form: complete pellets (Control group, n = 120); a coarse-ground meal (CG group, n = 120); or a mixture containing protein-rich pellets and sorghum whole grains (M group, n = 120). Feed intake per pen (40 birds/pen) was measured weekly between 42 and 98 days of age, and individual live weight (LW) was measured every 2 weeks. At 84 and 98 days of age, 12 birds were slaughtered in each group to measure the gizzard development and body traits. Irrespective of the goose sex, LW at 98 days was lower for the CG group than for the Control group (5555 v. 5888 g, P < 0.05 for males and 5039 v. 5215 g, P < 0.05 for females). The feed intake over the entire period was 5.5% higher in the M group (P < 0.05) than in the Control and CG groups but the feed conversion ratio (6.91, P > 0.05) was similar in the three groups. The gizzard development (as % of LW) was higher in birds of the CG group than those of the Control and M groups at 84 days of age (+13.98% and +13.51%, respectively; P < 0.05) but was similar in all three groups at 98 days of age (4.01%, P > 0.05). The relative liver development was lower in the birds of the CG group than those of the other two groups at 84 and 98 days of age (-20%, P < 0.001 and-10%, P < 0.05, respectively). The other body traits were similar in the three groups at both 84 and 98 days of age. The present results suggest that a simplified diet presented in the form of a mixture of sorghum whole grains and protein-rich pellets did not reduce the performance of growing geese. © 2012 The Animal Consortium. Source


Arroyo J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Arroyo J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fortun-Lamothe L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Fortun-Lamothe L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2012

The feeding schedule of geese for the production of "foie gras" requires many changes of ingestion rhythms and the nature of food. The aim of this review was, after presenting the anatomy, nutritional requirements, growth and dietary behavior of the animals, to identify the causes and possible solutions needed for the overfeeding period. Indeed, in order to prepare the geese to receive a large amount of food in a short period (overfeeding period), the geese are subjected throughout their life to different feed changes and access time to feeders in order to increase their intake capacity. At each transition phase, reductions in consumption are frequently observed, which leads to a heterogeneity between batches and to reduced animal performance. The management of these transitions has to confront the behavioral and digestive adaptation capacities of the animals when they are faced with changes in sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of food: color, texture, particle size, water retention, nutrient composition, nature of starch (amylopectin / amylose). The management of these transitions consists in finding a compromise between the food preferences of animals and their preparation for the overfeeding period for "foie gras" production. Source


Arroyo J.,ASSELDOR | Dubois J.P.,ASSELDOR | Lavigne F.,ASSELDOR | Brachet M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this trial was to study the effects of replacing yellow corn (C) with condensed tannin-free sorghum (S) during the finishing period (F period; age 53 to 79 d) and/or overfeeding period (O period; age 80 to 91 d) on the performance of overfed mule ducks. 192 ducks were divided into 4 groups (48 in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the F and/or the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: SS, SC, CS, CC. At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and magret qualities. Mortality (1%; P > 0.05) and weight gain (2,030 g; P > 0.05) during the O period were similar in the 4 groups. At the end of the O period, birds overfed with sorghum had foie gras that was heavier (723 vs. 694 g in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.05) and less yellow (24.40 vs. 38.59 for b∗ in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001) than birds overfed with corn. Fat loss during foie gras cooking was similar in the 4 groups (18%; P > 0.05), but the foie gras was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum (14.84 vs. 26.01 for b∗ in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). Weight of magret was similar in the 4 groups (491 g, P > 0.05) but the color of the breast muscle and skin of magret was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum compared with corn (12.26 vs. 12.92 and 13.84 vs. 18.30 in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the replacement of yellow corn with sorghum during finishing and/or overfeeding is possible and useful in a mule duck foie gras production system because it increases foie gras weight without decreasing the weight of magret. However, it changes the quality of the products, mainly their color. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Arroyo J.,ASSELDOR | Fortun-Lamothe L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fortun-Lamothe L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Dubois J.P.,ASSELDOR | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata × Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P < 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P < 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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