Islam F.,Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College |
Sarma R.,Assam Medical College |
Debroy A.,State Routine Immunization Officer |
Kar S.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science and Central Referral Hospital |
Pal R.,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical science
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%), living in kutcha houses (90.72%) with inadequate ventilation (84.54%), overcrowded living condition (81.44%), with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98%) and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%). ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community.
Das A.K.,Assam Medical College
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014
Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number.
Ahmed R.U.,Assam Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2015
In case of agonal death like burn, hanging or other form of asphyxial death various histopathological changes occur in the suprarenal glands. Sometimes under certain circumstances the diagnosis of death by ante-mortem burn becomes difficult. The histopathological changes in suprarenal glands will probably help in these cases to arrive at a diagnosis of ante-mortem burn deaths. This study comprised of suprarenal glands dissected out during medico-legal autopsies from 35 cases of deaths due to burn brought to the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh from 1st June 2012 to 31st May 2013. This study revealed that definite histopathological changes occur in the suprarenal glands in a considerable number of cases of death due to burn (57.14%). Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is rarely diagnosed clinically as its presentation is generally non-specific. The clinical importance of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is that it may lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and possible death. Therefore, when a sudden deterioration in a patient with thermal injuries is encountered, adrenal insufficiency must be considered. The findings of the present study show the relation between stress and its effects on the suprarenal glands.
Singh S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Munawwar A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Rao S.,Kasturba Medical College |
Mehta S.,Cus Medical College |
Hazarika N.K.,Assam Medical College
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014
Background:Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare.Aim:To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted.Results:Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers.Conclusions:This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. © 2014 Singh et al.
Patowary A.,Assam Medical College
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2010
Autopsy procedure includes thorough external examination as well as internal examination including opening of all the body cavities for proper visualization of all the visceral organs. As such, there remains incision marks with stitches which harts the sentiment of the already traumatized relatives of the deceased. Moreover, it looks odd especially in cases of otherwise healthy dead bodies.So, autopsy incisions should be such that, we can get maximum possible visualization of the body cavities, particularly the thorax and abdomen, and at the same time the incision as well as the stitch marks are also hidden.This article is aimed to describe few modifications in the autopsy incisions for opening the thorax and abdomen and also proper visualization of the neck structures during autopsy where the incisions and the stitches are kept hidden. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.