Cleveland, OH, United States

ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Cleveland, OH, United States

ASRC Aerospace Corporation is a subsidiary of Arctic Slope Regional Corporation . ASRC Aerospace is an enterprise formed in November 1997. Headquartered in Greenbelt, Maryland, ASRC Aerospace supports 15 major contracts providing a base of over 1000+ personnel. The company's segments are multiple operating units engaging primarily in U.S. Government contracts.ASRC Aerospace at one time had about 100 projects at NASA Kennedy Space Center. These projects included studies on lightning strikes and how the associated magnetism could affect launch operations for the shuttle fleet. The company also has designed lightning arrestors to protect the Ares rocket, which was planned to replace the Space Shuttle prior to the Obama administration's decision to cancel the Constellation Program . The company also has completed the analysis and design of a concept for an electrostatic shield to protect a lunar base.ASRC Aerospace is the prime contractor for the University-Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract to design ground support equipment and develop new technologies. The company has been engaged in designing the new mobile launcher and modifying the launch pads. ASRC has also been involved in other scientific research. The USTDC contract expired on October 31, 2010 and future contracts at Kennedy Space Center remain uncertain, given the agency's direction to abandon the Constellation program as well as the scheduled end of the Space Shuttle Program. ASRC Aerospace has laid-off approximately 20% of its workforce in 2010 on the USTDC contract, including subcontractors.For its work at NASA KSC and other field centers, Florida Lt. Governor Toni Jennings awarded ASRC Aerospace 2006 Florida Space Business Award for leadership in innovative approaches to developing breakthrough technologies for space exploration.The National Aeronautics and Space Administration presented the George M. Low award to ASRC Aerospace Corporation on February 26, 2008 in recognition of sustained, high quality performance in launch site design engineering, project management, technology development, and technical support services. Wikipedia.

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Immer C.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation | Lane J.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation | Metzger P.,Granular | Clements S.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Icarus | Year: 2011

Future missions to the Moon may require numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modern photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1°-3°. The lofted particle density is estimated at 108-1013particles/m3. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Immer C.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation | Metzger P.,Granular | Hintze P.E.,NASA | Nick A.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation | Horan R.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Icarus | Year: 2011

Understanding plume impingement by retrorockets on the surface of the Moon is paramount for safe lunar outpost design in NASA's planned return to the Moon for the Constellation Program. Visual inspection, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and surface scanned topology have been used to investigate the damage to the Lunar Surveyor III spacecraft that was caused by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module's close proximity landing. Two parts of the Surveyor III craft returned by the Apollo 12 astronauts, Coupons 2050 and 2051, which faced the Apollo 12 landing site, show that a fine layer of lunar regolith coated the materials and was subsequently removed by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing rocket. The coupons were also pitted by the impact of larger soil particles with an average of 103pits/cm2. The average entry size of the pits was 83.7μm (major diameter)×74.5μm (minor diameter) and the average estimated penetration depth was 88.4μm. Pitting in the surface of the coupons correlates to removal of lunar fines and is likely a signature of lunar material imparting localized momentum/energy sufficient to cause cracking of the paint. Comparison with the lunar soil particle size distribution and the optical density of blowing soil during lunar landings indicates that the Surveyor III spacecraft was not exposed to the direct spray of the landing Lunar Module, but instead experienced only the fringes of the spray of soil. Had Surveyor III been exposed to the direct spray, the damage would have been orders of magnitude higher. © 2010.

Metzger P.T.,Granular | Smith J.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Lane J.E.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets | Year: 2011

The soil-blowing phenomena observed in the Apollo lunar missions have not previously been described in the literature in sufficient detail to elucidate the physical processes and to support the development of physics-based modeling of the plume effects. In part, this is because previous laboratory experiments have used overly simplistic model soils that fail to produce many of the phenomena seen in lunar landings, some of which therefore went unrecognized. Here, the Apollo descent videos, terrain photography, and ascent videos are interpreted with the assistance of field experiments using a more complex regolith. Rocket thruster firings were performed upon the tephra of a lunar test site on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. This tephra possesses embedded rocks, large fractions of gravel and dust, some cohesion, and natural geological lamination. This produced more realistic plume phenomenology. The relevant phenomena include the relationship of dust liberation with overall soil erosion rate, terrain bed forms created by the plume, dust tails associated with the exhumation and blowing of rocks, bed load transport, the removal of discrete layers of soil hypothesized to be the stratigraphic units corresponding to impact events, the total mass of ejected soil during a landing, and the brightening of the regolith around the landing site. This analysis provides insight into the erosion processes and nature of the regolith. This paper also synthesizes theory, experiment, simulation, and observational data to produce a clearer picture of the physical processes of lunar soil erosion. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hartwig J.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation | McQuillen J.,NASA
42nd AIAA Thermophysics Conference | Year: 2011

The purpose of this paper is to examine the key parameters that affect the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. An in depth analysis of the effect of varying temperature, pressure, and pressurization gas on bubble point is presented. Testing of a 200 x 1400 and 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenics Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 92 to 130K and 0.138 - 1.79 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of temperature with a secondary dependence on pressure. The pressure dependence is believed to be a function of the amount of evaporation and condensation occurring at the screen. Good agreement exists between data and theory for normally saturated liquid but the model generally under predicts the bubble point in subcooled liquid. Better correlation with the data is obtained by using the liquid temperature at the screen to determine surface tension of the fluid, as opposed to the bulk liquid temperature. © 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

Nurge M.A.,NASA | Perusich S.A.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone™ desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8 in. dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Kandula M.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Journal of Porous Media | Year: 2011

Point contact models for the effective thermal conductivity of porous media with uniform spherical particles have been briefly reviewed. The model of Zehner and Schlunder (1970) has been further validated with recent experimental data over a broad range of conductivity ratios from 8 to 1200 and over a range of solids fractions up to ∼0.8. The comparisons further confirm the validity of the Zehner-Schlunder model, known to be applicable for conductivity ratios less than ∼2000, above which area contact between the particles becomes significant. This validation of the Zehner-Schlunder model has implications for its use in the prediction of the effective thermal conductivity of water frost (with ice-to-air conductivity ratio ∼100) which arises in many important areas of technology. © 2011 by Begell House, Inc.

Kandula M.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role of air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Perusich S.A.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy studies of the sulfonyl fluoride, potassium salt, and sulfonic acid forms of long and short side chain perfluorosulfonate polymers revealed bands indicative of the sidegroup and backbone compositions, endgroups on the main chain, water content, monomer concentration, and degree of salt hydrolysis. The equivalent weight (EW) of the polymer was obtained by titration and NMR measurements which were then calibrated to either the C-F/C-O-C absorbance band ratio for thin (<1.1 mil) films or to a C-F/SO2F absorbance band ratio for thick films (5 to 25 mils). An FTIR measurement of the film thickness based on the C-F group concentration was found to be both a function of the actual thickness and the EW; a method for compensating for this EW dependence is described. Esterification and fluorination of the polymers yielded FTIR measurements of the endgroup compositions on the polymer backbone which were shown to consist of -COF, -COOH, -CO2CH3, and -CF=CF 2 groups. Thermogravimetric Analysis Infrared (TGA-IR) spectroscopy of the acid form polymers indicates that degradation begins by the decomposition of the -SO3H group at 320°C followed by bulk deterioration above 400°C. The FTIR techniques detailed herein have been developed for accurate, reproducible, and rapid compositional measurements of Nafion® and other perfluorosulfonate polymers. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kandula M.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Special Topics and Reviews in Porous Media | Year: 2012

A dimensionless correlation has been proposed for water frost porosity expressing its dependence on frost surface temperature and Reynolds number for laminar forced flow over a flat surface. The correlation is presented in terms of a dimensionless frost surface temperature scaled with the cold plate temperature and the freezing temperature. The flow Reynolds number is scaled with reference to the critical Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition. The proposed correlation agrees satisfactorily with the simultaneous measurements of frost density and frost surface temperature covering a range of plate temperature, ambient air velocity, humidity, and temperature. It is shown that the frost porosity depends primarily on the frost surface and plate temperatures and the flow Reynolds number, and is only weakly dependent on the relative humidity. The results also point out the general character of frost porosity displaying a decrease with an increase in flow Reynolds number. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.

Kandula M.,ASRC Aerospace Corporation
Special Topics and Reviews in Porous Media | Year: 2010

A physical model for the effective thermal conductivity of water frost is proposed for application to the full range of frost density. The proposed model builds on the Zehner-Schlunder 1D formulation for porous media appropriate for solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios less than about 1000. By superposing the effects of mass diffusion and eddy convection on stagnant conduction in the fluid, the total effective thermal conductivity of frost is shown to be satis- factorily described. It is shown that the effects of vapor diffusion and eddy convection on the frost conductivity are on the same order. The results also point out that idealization of the frost structure by cylindrical inclusions offers a better representation of the effective conductivity of frost as compared to spherical inclusions. Satisfactory agreement between the theory and the measurements for the effective thermal conductivity of frost is demonstrated for a wide range of frost density and frost temperature. © 2010 by Begell House, Inc.

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