Asociacion Del Aire Ambiental

Lime, Peru

Asociacion Del Aire Ambiental

Lime, Peru

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Li Z.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sjodin A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Romanoff L.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Horton K.,University of Georgia | And 4 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2011

Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM 2.5 and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM 2.5 and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population. © 2011.


Adetona O.,University of Georgia | Horton K.,University of Georgia | Horton K.,Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry | Sjodin A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Although the production and use of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned or highly restricted, human exposure remains a subject of investigation due to their environmental persistence. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the disposition of POPs in the mother's body, and thus fetal exposure. Changes in serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) across pregnancy trimesters, and trans-placental transfer to the fetus were investigated. Seventy-nine pregnant women in Trujillo, Peru were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy, and provided blood samples for the analysis of 35 PCB congeners, 9 OCPs, and 11 polybrominated biphenyl diethers (PBDEs). Subsequently, maternal blood samples were collected in the second (. n=. 64) and third trimesters (. n=. 59), and cord blood samples (. n=. 50) were collected at delivery. There were statistically significant changes across trimesters (. p<. 0.05) for both fresh weight (increase) and lipid adjusted concentrations (decrease) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), PCB-74, 118, 138-158, 153, 170, 180 and 194. Fresh weight concentrations of these POPs increased from first to third trimester by 10-28%. On the other hand lipid adjusted concentrations decreased from first to third trimester by 16-28%. Serum lipids increased from first to third trimester by 53% indicating the dilution of the POPs in the lipids. Concentrations of 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), its metabolite p,p'-DDE, PCB-118, 138-158, 153, 170 and 180 above their limits of detection were measured in >60% of cord serum samples. Intra-individual correlations in maternal serum concentrations were high for most of the POPs (. ρ=. 0.62-0.99; p<. 0.05) while correlations between maternal and cord serum concentrations were also high (. ρ=. 0.68-0.99; p<. 0.05). Results indicate that the disposition in the body and blood concentrations of POPs may change during pregnancy, and show trans-placental transfer of DDT, DDE and PCBs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Irvin E.A.,University of Georgia | Calafat A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Silva M.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Aguilar-Villalobos M.,Asociacion del Aire Ambiental | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Phthalates are a group of phthalic acid esters which are used as plasticizers and additives. In laboratory animals, several phthalates are known endocrine disruptors. Several studies have described phthalate exposure in the United States and developed countries but little is known about phthalate exposure in the developing world, particularly during pregnancy. To assess exposure to six different phthalates, we measured the concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites in spot urine samples collected during the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy from a group of 72 women living in Trujillo, Peru. Additionally, women completed questionnaires to provide demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis via linear models was used to evaluate potential differences in the concentrations of phthalate metabolites by trimester, cooking fuel type, socioeconomic status, and education. All metabolites were detected in >40% of samples analyzed, and mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, and monoethyl phthalate were found in >90% of samples. Five of nine unadjusted urinary metabolites and four of nine creatinine-adjusted urinary metabolites were significantly lower in this group of pregnant women living in Peru compared to pregnant women in the US general population. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Adetona O.,University of Georgia | Sjodin A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zheng L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Romanoff L.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2012

Public transport vehicle drivers, especially in highly polluted or trafficked areas, are exposed to high levels of air pollutants. In this study, we assessed the influence of traffic on levels of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) in commercial bus drivers in Trujillo, Peru, by measuring the within-shift changes in the urinary whole weight and creatinine-corrected concentrations of the PAH metabolites. We measured personal PM 2.5 as a proxy of exposure to traffic emission. Urine samples were collected daily from two bus drivers and three minivan drivers in Trujillo, pre-, mid-, post-work shift and on days when the drivers were off work (total n = 144). Ten OH-PAH metabolites were measured in the urine samples. Drivers were also monitored for exposure to PM 2.5 (n = 41). Daily work shift (mean = 13.1 1.3 hr) integrated PM 2.5 was measured in the breathing zones of the drivers for an average of 10.5 days per driver. The differences across shift in OH-PAH concentrations were not statistically significant except for urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-FLU) (p = 0.04) and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-PHE)(p= 0.01) and creatinine-corrected 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (p = 0.01). Correlation between pairs of hydroxy-PAHs ( = 0.50 to 0.93) were highest for mid-shift samples. Concentrations of PM 2.5 (geometric mean = 64 g/m 3; 95% confidence limits = 52 g/m 3, 78 g/m 3) is similar to those measured in many other studies of traffic exposure. There was significant change across work shift for concentrations of only two of the OH-PAHs (2-FLU and 4-PHE). Results indicate that the drivers may have had limited time for clearance of PAH exposure from the body between work shifts. Comparisons of the concentrations of creatinine-corrected hydroxy-PAH to those reported in other studies indicate that exposure of public transport drivers to PAH could be similar. By following the subjects over multiple days, this study gives an indication of appropriate exposure situations for the use of hydroxy-PAHs and will be beneficial in designing future occupational studies of PAH exposure. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Commodore A.A.,University of Georgia | Hartinger S.M.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | Hartinger S.M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Lanata C.F.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

Background: Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to biomass-fueled fires. Objective: We compare CO exposures and concentrations among study promoted intervention stove users and control stove users in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca region, Peru. Methods: Passive CO diffusion tubes were deployed over a 48-hour sampling period to measure kitchen CO concentrations and personal mother and child CO exposures in 197 control and 182 intervention households. Results: Geometric means (95% CI) for child, mother, and kitchen measurements were 1.1 (0.9-1.2), 1.4 (1.3-1.6), and 7.3 (6.4-8.3) ppm in control households, and 1.0 (0.9-1.1), 1.4 (1.3-1.6), and 7.3 (6.4-8.2) ppm among intervention households, respectively. Conclusion: With no significant differences between control and intervention CO measurements, results suggest that intervention stove maintenance may be necessary for long-term reductions in CO exposures. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013.


Commodore A.A.,University of Georgia | Hartinger S.M.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | Hartinger S.M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Hartinger S.M.,University of Basel | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. We aimed to use PM2.5 and CO measurements to characterize exposure to cookstove generated woodsmoke in real time among control (n=10) and intervention (n=9) households in San Marcos, Cajamarca Region, Peru. Real time personal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5), and personal and kitchen carbon monoxide (CO) samples were taken. Control households used a number of stoves including open fire and chimney stoves while intervention households used study-promoted chimney stoves. Measurements were categorized into lunch (9am-1pm) and dinner (3pm-7pm) periods, where applicable, to adjust for a wide range of sampling periods (2.8-13.1h). During the 4-h time periods, mean personal PM2.5 exposures were correlated with personal CO exposures during lunch (r=0.67 p=0.024 n=11) and dinner (r=0.72 p=0.0011 n=17) in all study households. Personal PM2.5 exposures and kitchen CO concentrations were also correlated during lunch (r=0.76 p=0.018 n=9) and dinner (r=0.60 p=0.018 n=15). CO may be a useful indicator of PM during 4-h time scales measured in real time, particularly during high woodsmoke exposures, particularly during residential biomass cooking. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hartinger S.M.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | Hartinger S.M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Hartinger S.M.,University of Basel | Commodore A.A.,University of Georgia | And 10 more authors.
Indoor Air | Year: 2013

Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m3 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m3, 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | University of Washington, Asociacion del Aire Ambiental, University of Georgia and Kanazawa University
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental sciences (China) | Year: 2016

The assessment of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is important from an epidemiological perspective. Urinary biomarkers of exposure have been proposed as a novel approach for measuring exposure to DE. In this study, we measured the concentrations of two urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene (1NP), a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has been suggested as a molecular marker of diesel particulate matter. These two metabolites, 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene and 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, were determined in urine samples (10mL) from a small group of workers who were occupationally-exposed to vehicle exhaust in Trujillo, Peru, before and after their workshifts. Workshift exposures to 1NP, as well as PM


Eppler A.R.,University of Georgia | Fitzgerald C.,University of Georgia | Dorner S.C.,University of Georgia | Aguilar-Villalobos M.,Asociacion del Aire Ambiental | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

Background: Measurement of biological indicators of physiological change may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of stove models, which are intended to reduce indoor smoke exposure and potential health effects. Objectives: We examined changes in exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), percentage carboxy-hemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in response to the installation of a chimney stove model by the Juntos National Program in Huayatan, Peru in 2008. Methods: Biomarkers were measured in a convenience sample comprising 35 women who met requirements for participation, and were measured before and three weeks after installation of a chimney stove. The relationships between exposure to indoor smoke and biomarker measurements were also analyzed using simple linear regression models. Results: Exhaled CO reduced from 6.71 ppm (95% CI 5.84-7.71) to 3.14 ppm (95% CI 2.77-3.66) three weeks after stove installation (P < 0.001) while % COHb reduced from 1.76% (95% CI 1.62-1.91) to 1.18% (95% CI 1.12-1.25; P < 0.001). Changes in exhaled CO and % COHb from pre-to post-chimney stove installation were not correlated with corresponding changes in exposure to CO and PM2.5 even though the exposures also reduced after stove installation. Conclusion: Exhaled CO and % COHb both showed improvement with reduction in concentration after the installation of the chimney cook stoves, indicating a positive physiological response subsequent to the intervention. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013.


Fitzgerald C.,University of Georgia | Aguilar-Villalobos M.,Asociacion del Aire Ambiental | Eppler A.R.,University of Georgia | Dorner S.C.,University of Georgia | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

90% of people residing in rural areas of less-developed countries rely on coal and biomass fuels for heating and cooking, leading to high exposures to the products of incomplete combustion. Three Andean communities within the Santiago de Chuco province of Peru received two different models of improved cookstoves. The impact of these stoves in reducing personal exposures and kitchen concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated separately in 64 homes (32 with each stove model) using air monitoring equipment. In the community receiving stove 1, baseline aggregate 48-h personal exposure (n=27) and kitchen concentrations (n=26) of PM2.5 were 116.4 and 207.3μg/m3, respectively, and 48-h personal (n=25) and kitchen (n=25) CO levels were 1.2 and 3.6ppm. After introducing the new stove to this community, those exposures reduced to 68.4 and 84.7μg/m3, and 0.4 and 0.8ppm, representing reductions of 41.3%, 59.2%, 69.6% and 77.7% respectively. In the two communities receiving stove 2, corresponding levels were 126.3μg/m3 (n=18), 173.4μg/m3 (n=19), 0.9ppm (n=19), and 2.6ppm (n=17) before the installation of the stoves, and they reduced to 58.3, 51.1μg/m3 and 0.6, 1.0ppm. Overall, homes receiving stove 2 saw reductions of 53.8, 70.5, 25.8 and 63.6%. All values are statistically significant (p<0.05) with the exception of personal CO reductions in the stove 2 group. Both stoves markedly reduce both kitchen and personal levels of wood smoke exposure, which we believe has the potential to improve health and quality of life. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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