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Bahía Blanca, Argentina

Salomon N.,National University of the South | Misller V.,National University of the South | Delrieux C.,National University of the South | Miranda R.,Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas
Phyton | Year: 2015

Color is one of the factors used in quality estimation in many agricultural and food products. Currently, the evaluation of color depends on judgments made by human experts. These are subjective and inevitably affected by physical, physiological and environmental conditions. Suitable instrumental is required to provide objectivity and coherence to color measurements and quantitative expressions. It would be very useful to have tools that allow both practical and precise approaches to chromatic evaluation of products for human consumption. This work suggests a methodology which might contribute to solve that constraint and the analysis of environmental influences on this character in two consecutive wheat growing seasons. This research used 18 cultivars, which were sampled in two crop growth stages. On the first part of this study, a spectrophotometer and a digital camera were used for the analysis of color at the phenological state of tillering. Data analysis showed a correlation between both study methodologies, which would make more practical the work of breeders during data collection. The second part of the study of the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) continued using only a digital camera. The phenological state of tillering did not evidence a marked GEI. On the other hand, an appreciable GEI was found at physiological ripeness. © 2015, Fund Roulo Raggio. All rights reserved. Source


Roncallo P.F.,CONICET | Roncallo P.F.,National University of the South | Cervigni G.L.,CONICET | Jensen C.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 6 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with flour yellow color (Fb*) and yellow pigment content (YPC) in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). Additionally, QTLs affecting flour redness (F*) and brightness (FL*) color parameters were investigated. A population of 93 RILs (UC1113 × Kofa) was evaluated in three locations of Argentina over 2 years. High heritability values (>94%) were obtained for Fb* and YPC, whereas FL* and Fa* showed intermediate to high values. The main QTLs affecting Fb* and YPC overlapped on chromosome arms 4AL (4AL. 2), 6AL (6AL. 2), 7AS, 7AL, 7BS (7BS. 2) and 7BL (7BL. 2). The 7BL. 1 QTL included the Psy-B1 locus, but one additional linked QTL was detected. A novel minor QTL located on 7AS affected Fb*, with an epistatic effect on YPC. An epistatic interaction occurred between the 7AL and 7BL. 2 QTLs. The 4AL. 2 QTL showed a strong effect on Fb* and was involved in two digenic epistatic interactions. The 6AL. 2 QTL explained most of the variation for Fb* and YPC. The main QTLs affecting FL* and Fa* were located on 2BS and 7BL, respectively. These results confirm the complex inheritance of flour color traits and open the possibility of developing perfect markers to improve pasta quality in Argentinean breeding programs. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Salomon N.,National University of the South | Miranda R.,National University of the South | Ortis L.,Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas
BAG - Journal of Basic and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Baking quality is one out of four objectives in a breeding program for wheat bread. This is a quantitative variable governed by many genes and strongly influenced by environmental conditions. Several authors have examined this complex variable through different statistical methods. In the present study, path analysis was used to build quality models through the dissection of the correlation between two variables and to compare them in four Argentine wheat sub-regions. The model built with 21 variables yielded high coefficients of determination (over 95%) in all sub-regions, except V South subregion (6.47%). To build Model II, those variables showing either high correlation or scarce contribution to Model I were removed so that the coefficient of determination (R2) markedly increased in V South sub-region (from 6.47 to 30%). In the remaining sub-regions this value decreased as follows: II North > II South > IV. This wide variation among R2 values was attributed to the variables that formed each model and to the high environmental influence over them. A high correlation among the same variables was observed in the four sub-regions. As for the contribution of each variable to Model II depending on each sub-region, common variables such as Wet Gluten, Bakery Strength, Index Gluten, Dough Equilibrium and Flour Ash were observed. Other variables were typical of some of the sub-regions. Dissection of each sub-region explained why some variables had low correlations with Loaf Volume while others scarcely contributed to the model. The variables that built Model II in each of the sub-regions could be considered as participants in a breeding index. Source


Conti V.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Roncallo P.F.,CONICET | Roncallo P.F.,National University of the South | Beaufort V.,CONICET | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Quality, specifically protein content and gluten strength are among the main objectives of a durum wheat breeding program. The aim of this work was to validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with grain protein content (GPC) and gluten strength measured by SDS sedimentation volume (SV) and to find additional QTLs expressed in Argentinean environments. Also, epistatic QTL and QTL x environmental interactions were analyzed. A mapping population of 93 RILs derived from the cross UC1113 x Kofa showing extreme values in gluten quality was used. Phenotypic data were collected along six environments (three locations, two years). Main effect QTLs associated with GPC were found in equivalent positions in two environments on chromosomes 3BS (R 2 = 21.0-21.6%) and 7BL (R 2 = 12.1-13%), and in one environment on chromosomes 1BS, 2AL, 2BS, 3BL, 4AL, 5AS, 5BL and 7AS. The most important and stable QTL affecting SV was located on chromosome 1BL (Glu-B1) consistently detected over the six environments (R 2 = 20.9-54.2%). Additional QTLs were found in three environments on chromosomes 6AL (R 2 = 6.4-12.5%), and in two environments on chromosomes 6BL (R 2 = 11.5-12.1%), 7AS (R 2 = 8.2-10.2%) and 4BS (R 2 = 11-16.4%). In addition, pleiotropic effects were found affecting grain yield, test weight, thousand-kernel- weight and days to heading in some of these QTLs. Epistatic QTLs and QTL x environment interactions were found for both quality traits, mostly for GPC. The flanking markers of the QTLs detected in this work could be efficient tools to select superior genotypes for the mentioned traits. © 2011 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan. Source


Presello D.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Pereyra A.O.,Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas | Iglesias J.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Fauguel C.M.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Random S5 inbreds derived from three F2 maize (Zea mays L.) populations (L1934 × LP918, LP915 × LP2541 and L7310 × L7266) were selected for ear rot resistance after inoculation with a low-fumonisin producing isolate belonging to F. proliferatum. The four less susceptible and the four most susceptible inbreds from each population were crossed and F1 seeds were pooled. Resistant and susceptible pools from each population were evaluated for disease severity (percentage of the ear visibly diseased) after inoculation with the isolate used for selection, and high toxigenic isolates belonging to F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Grain mycotoxin concentration was assessed by ELISA. Differences in disease resistance to each fungus were observed between resistant and susceptible pools in most populations and environments indicating that selection after inoculation with a single species might be effective to develop broad-based resistance to Fusarium. Resistant pools exhibited, after inoculation with F. verticillioides, low grain fumonisin concentrations in most populations and years. Positive genotypic correlations between disease severity and fumonisin concentration (0.89 < rg < 0.98, depending on fungal species and year) indicate that selection for disease severity accounted for most of the variability for field fumonisin accumulation. Selection seemed to be also effective to reduce grain deoxynivalenol and zearalenone concentrations after inoculation with F. graminearum. Ratios between grain deoxynivalenol concentration and disease severity were lower in L7310 × L7266 than those observed in the other populations suggesting that mechanisms affecting mycotoxin accumulation might exist in this population and additional responses should be feasible if including deoxynivalenol concentration as another selection parameter. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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