Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica

Lima, Peru

Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica

Lima, Peru
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Diniz P.P.V.P.,Western University of Health Sciences | Morton B.A.,Western University of Health Sciences | Tngrian M.,Western University of Health Sciences | Kachani M.,Western University of Health Sciences | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1:64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1:256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. © 2013 Diniz et al.


Kyerematen V.,Duke Global Health Institute | Hamb A.,Mercer University | Cabrera L.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | Bernabe-Ortiz A.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Berry S.J.,Louisiana State University
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting: Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban lowincome community in Lima, Peru. Participants: The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention: A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures: For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results: Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions: The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America.


Soto-Castellares G.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | Gilman R.H.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | Gilman R.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Caviedes L.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis presents challenges in children because symptoms are non-specific, specimens are difficult to obtain, and cultures and smears of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are often negative. We assessed new diagnostic approaches for tuberculosis in children in a resource-poor country. Methods: Children with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (cases) were enrolled from August, 2002, to January, 2007, at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. Age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled from a low-income shanty town community in south Lima. Cases were grouped into moderate-risk and high-risk categories by Stegen-Toledo score. Two specimens of each type (gastric-aspirate, nasopharyngeal-aspirate, and stool specimens) taken from each case were examined for M tuberculosis by auramine smear microscopy, broth culture by microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) technique, standard culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and heminested IS6110 PCR. Specimens from controls consisted of one nasopharyngeal-aspirate and two stool samples, examined with the same techniques. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00054769. Findings: 218 cases and 238 controls were enrolled. 22 (10%) cases had at least one positive M tuberculosis culture (from gastric aspirate in 22 cases, nasopharyngeal aspirate in 12 cases, and stool in four cases). Laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis was more frequent in cases at high risk for tuberculosis (21 [14·1%] of 149 cases with complete specimen collection were culture positive) than in cases at moderate risk for tuberculosis (one [1·6%] of 61). MODS was more sensitive than Lowenstein-Jensen culture, diagnosing 20 (90·9%) of 22 patients compared with 13 (59·1%) of 22 patients (p=0·015), and M tuberculosis isolation by MODS was faster than by Lowenstein-Jensen culture (mean 10 days, IQR 8-11, vs 25 days, 20-30; p=0·0001). All 22 culture-confirmed cases had at least one culture-positive gastric-aspirate specimen. M tuberculosis was isolated from the first gastric-aspirate specimen obtained in 16 (72·7%) of 22 cases, whereas in six (27·3%), only the second gastric-aspirate specimen was culture positive (37% greater yield by adding a second specimen). In cases at high risk for tuberculosis, positive results from one or both gastric-aspirate PCRs identified a subgroup with a 50% chance of having a positive culture (13 of 26 cases). Interpretation: Collection of duplicate gastric-aspirate specimens from high-risk children for MODS culture was the best available diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis. PCR was insufficiently sensitive or specific for routine diagnostic use, but in high-risk children, duplicate gastric-aspirate PCR provided same-day identification of half of all culture-positive cases. Funding: National Institutes of Health. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


McCune S.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | Arriola C.S.,National Major San Marcos University | Gilman R.H.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | Gilman R.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important.Methods: This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36) and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4). Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming.Results: In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations.Conclusions: Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and biosecurity practices and guidelines and education for poultry farmers about alternative approaches for processing poultry mortality, is recommended. Virological and serological surveillance for influenza viruses will also be critical for these human and animal populations. © 2012 McCune et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Hospital Nacional Dos Of Mayo, Hospital Of Apoyo Maria Auxiliadora, Imperial College London, St Georges Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Hospital infection control measures are crucial to tuberculosis (TB) control strategies within settings caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, as these patients are at heightened risk of developing TB. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a potent drug that effectively sterilizes persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. However, PZA resistance associated with mutations in the nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase coding gene, pncA, is increasing. A total of 794 patient isolates obtained from four sites in Lima, Peru, underwent spoligotyping and drug resistance testing. In one of these sites, the HIV unit of Hospital Dos de Mayo (HDM), an isolation ward for HIV/TB coinfected patients opened during the study as an infection control intervention: circulating genotypes and drug resistance pre- and postintervention were compared. All other sites cared for HIV-negative outpatients: genotypes and drug resistance rates from these sites were compared with those from HDM. HDM patients showed high concordance between multidrug resistance, PZA resistance according to the Wayne method, the two most common genotypes (spoligotype international type [SIT] 42 of the Latino American-Mediterranean (LAM)-9 clade and SIT 53 of the T1 clade), and the two most common pncA mutations (G145A and A403C). These associations were absent among community isolates. The infection control intervention was associated with 58-92% reductions in TB caused by SIT 42 or SIT 53 genotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.420, P = 0.003); multidrug-resistant TB (OR = 0.349, P < 0.001); and PZA-resistant TB (OR = 0.076, P < 0.001). In conclusion, pncA mutation typing, with resistance testing and spoligotyping, was useful in identifying a nosocomial TB outbreak and demonstrating its resolution after implementation of infection control measures.


Watts N.S.,Boston University | Pajuelo M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Clark T.,New York Medical College | Loader M.-C.I.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Copyright:Materials and Methods: We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N52,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA.Results: Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI51.6-2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI53.1-5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI51.0-2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI51.9-4.1%) by community was observed.Conclusion/Significance: This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. © 2014 Watts et al.


Bayer A.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bayer A.M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Nussbaum L.,Tulane University | Cabrera L.,Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica | And 2 more authors.
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women's health behaviors during women's visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. © 2011 by SOPHE.


PubMed | National Major San Marcos University, Hospital Nacional Dos Of Mayo, Imperial College London, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) rates in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facility increased by the year 2000-56% of TB cases, eight times the national MDRTB rate. We reported the effect of tuberculosis infection control measures that were introduced in 2001 and that consisted of 1) building a respiratory isolation ward with mechanical ventilation, 2) triage segregation of patients, 3) relocation of waiting room to outdoors, 4) rapid sputum smear microscopy, and 5) culture/drug-susceptibility testing with the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay. Records pertaining to patients attending the study site between 1997 and 2004 were reviewed. Six hundred and fifty five HIV/TB-coinfected patients (mean age 33 years, 79% male) who attended the service during the study period were included. After the intervention, MDRTB rates declined to 20% of TB cases by the year 2004 (P = 0.01). Extremely limited access to antiretroviral therapy and specific MDRTB therapy did not change during this period, and concurrently, national MDRTB prevalence increased, implying that the infection control measures caused the fall in MDRTB rates. The infection control measures were estimated to have cost US$91,031 while preventing 97 MDRTB cases, potentially saving US$1,430,026. Thus, this intervention significantly reduced MDRTB within an HIV care facility in this resource-constrained setting and should be cost-effective.


PubMed | Walter Reed Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science AFRIMS Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University, Fogarty International Center National Institutes of Health, Christian Medical College and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort study, we examine biomarkers of gut inflammation and permeability in relation to environmental exposures and feeding practices. Trends in the concentrations of three biomarkers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and -1-antitrypsin (AAT), are described from an unparalleled number of fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of each childs life. A total of 22,846 stool samples were processed during the longitudinal sampling of 2,076 children 0-24 months of age. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the relationship between biomarker concentrations and recent food intake, symptoms of illness, concurrent enteropathogen infection, and socioeconomic status. Average concentrations of MPO, NEO, and AAT were considerably higher than published references for healthy adults. The concentration of each biomarker tended to decrease over the first 2 years of life and was highly variable between samples from each individual child. Both MPO and AAT were significantly elevated by recent breast milk intake. All three biomarkers were associated with pathogen presence, although the strength and direction varied by pathogen. The interpretation of biomarker concentrations is subject to the context of their collection. Herein, we identify that common factors (age, breast milk, and enteric infection) influence the concentration of these biomarkers. Within the context of low- and middle-income communities, we observe concentrations that indicate gut abnormalities, but more appropriate reference standards are needed.


PubMed | Asociacion Benefica Proyectos en Informatica
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2012

The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime mixing vessels due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important.This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36) and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4). Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming.In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations.Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and biosecurity practices and guidelines and education for poultry farmers about alternative approaches for processing poultry mortality, is recommended. Virological and serological surveillance for influenza viruses will also be critical for these human and animal populations.

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