Pagano G.,Cancer Research Center at Mercogliano |
Aiello Talamanca A.,Cancer Research Center at Mercogliano |
Castello G.,Cancer Research Center at Mercogliano |
Cordero M.D.,University of Seville |
And 6 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2014
Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver), neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) along with the occurrence of oxidative stress (OS) have been investigated within the pathogenesis of individual disorders or in groups of interrelated disorders. We attempt to review broad-ranging pathologies that involve mitochondrial-specific deficiencies or rely on cytosol-derived prooxidant states or on autoimmune-induced mitochondrial damage. The established knowledge in these subjects warrants studies aimed at elucidating several open questions that are highlighted in the present review. The relevance of OS and MDF in different pathologies may establish the grounds for chemoprevention trials aimed at compensating OS/MDF by means of antioxidants and mitochondrial nutrients. © 2014 Giovanni Pagano et al.
Menna L.F.,University of Naples Federico II |
Santaniello A.,University of Naples Federico II |
Gerardi F.,University of Naples Federico II |
Di Maggio A.,ASL Naples |
Milan G.,Geriatrician Center Frullone Naples
Psychogeriatrics | Year: 2016
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) in elderly patients affected by Alzheimer's disease based on the formal reality orientation therapy (ROT) protocol. Methods: Our study was carried out at an Alzheimer's centre for 6 months. A homogeneous sample (age, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)) of 50 patients was selected at random and successively. Patients were divided into three groups: (i) 20 patients received a course of AAT (AAT group) based on the ROT protocol; (ii) 20 patients were engaged exclusively in activities based on the ROT group; and (iii) 10 patients (control group) participated in no stimulations. MMSE and GDS were administered at time 0 (T0) and time 1 (T1) to all three groups. Differences within groups between T0 and T1 for GDS and MMSE scores were analyzed by Student's t-test. Differences between group means were analyzed using an anova test with the Bonferroni-Dunn test for post-hoc comparisons. Results: Both the AAT group and ROT group had improved GDS scores and showed a slight improvement in terms of mood. On the GDS, the AAT group improved from 11.5 (T0) to 9.5 (T1), and the ROT group improved from 11.6 (T0) to 10.5 (T1). At the same time, a slight improvement in cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE, was observed. In the AAT group, mean MMSE was 20.2 at T0 and 21.5 at T1, and in the ROT group, it was 19.9 at T0 and 20.0 at T1. In the control group, the average values of both the GDS and MMSE remained unchanged. The Bonferroni-Dunn results showed statistically significant differences between groups, particularly between the AAT group and the other two (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Pet therapy interventions based on the formal ROT protocol were effective and, compared to the ROT, provided encouraging and statistically significant results. © 2015 The Authors and 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.