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Seo Y.B.,Korea University | Seo Y.B.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | Song J.Y.,Korea University | Song J.Y.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | And 7 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses

The Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM) surveillance system is an emergency room (ER)-based influenza surveillance system in Korea that was established in 2011. The system was established under the assumption that integrated clinical and virologic surveillance could be performed rapidly and easily at seven tertiary hospitals' ER. Here, we assessed the correlation between data generated from the HIMM surveillance system and the Korean national influenza surveillance systems during the 2011-2012 influenza season using cross-correlation analysis and found strong correlations. Rapid antigen-test-based HIMM surveillance would predict the start of influenza epidemic earlier than pre-existing influenza-like-illness-based surveillance. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Song J.Y.,Korea University | Song J.Y.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | Choi J.Y.,Yonsei University | Lee J.S.,Inha University | And 11 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Quantitative data on the burden of pneumococcal disease, important for the establishment of appropriate vaccination strategies, is currently lacking in adults.Methods: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study was designed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPD in adults over the last decade. Data were collected from patients with IPD at 10 university hospitals in South Korea. We estimated the proportion of IPD among all hospitalized patients, the case fatality rate, and the direct medical costs of IPD. Data were further analyzed according to age and risk groups.Results: During the study period, 970 patients with IPD were identified. The mean age for all patients was 60.9 years; patients aged 50-64 years (33.0%) were most numerous, followed by those aged 65-74 years (27.4%). Overall, the proportion of IPD was 0.36 cases/1000 hospitalized patients and the case fatality rate was 30.9%, which increased significantly with age (p < 0.01). The mean direct medical costs were estimated to be US $7,452 without a difference between age and risk groups. On multivariate analysis, old age, advanced ECOG performance status, bacteremic pneumonia, and nosocomial infection were independent risk factors of 30-day case fatality.Conclusions: The clinical disease burden of IPD increased significantly with age and direct medical costs from IPD were substantial, regardless of age and co-morbid conditions. The current age-based vaccination strategy appears to be appropriate. © 2013 Song et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yang T.U.,Korea University | Yang T.U.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | Cheong H.J.,Korea University | Cheong H.J.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | And 11 more authors.

Objectives: This study aims to identify clinical case definitions of influenza with higher accuracy in patients stratified by age group and influenza activity using hospital-based surveillance system. Methods: In seven tertiary hospitals across South Korea during 2011-2012 influenza season, respiratory specimens were obtained from patients presenting an influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as having fever plus at least one of following symptoms: cough, sore throat or rhinorrhea. Influenza was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify clinical variables with better relation with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and compared the accuracy of combinations. Results: Over the study period, we enrolled 1417 patients, of which 647 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat or headache were more likely to have influenza (p<0.05). The most accurate criterion across the study population was the combination of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat and headache (sensitivity 71.3%, specificity 60.1% and AUROC 0.66). The combination of rhinorrhea, sore throat and sputum during the peak influenza activity period in the young age group showed higher accuracy than that using the whole population (sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 72.1%, and AUROC 0.81). Conclusions: The accuracy of clinical case definitions of influenza differed across age groups and influenza activity periods. Categorizing the entire population into subgroups would improve the detection of influenza patients in the hospital-based surveillance system. © 2014 Yang et al. Source

Song J.Y.,Korea University | Song J.Y.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | Cheong H.J.,Korea University | Cheong H.J.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology

Influenza epidemics occur annually with variations in size and severity. Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity & Mortality was established to monitor influenza epidemics and their severity, which is composed of two surveillance systems: emergency room-based and inpatient-based surveillance. Regarding emergency room-based surveillance, influenza-like illness index (influenza-like illness cases per 1,000 emergency room-visiting subjects), number of laboratory-confirmed cases and the distribution of influenza types were estimated weekly. Inpatient-based surveillance included monitoring for hospitalization, complications, and mortality. The emergency room influenza-like illness index correlated well with the number of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, and showed a bimodal peak at Week 4 (179.2/1,000 emergency room visits) and Weeks 13-14 (169.6/1,000 emergency room visits) of 2012. Influenza A was the predominant strain during the first epidemic peak, while influenza B was isolated exclusively during the second peak. In 2011-2012 season, the mean admission rate of emergency room-visiting patients with influenza-like illness was 16.3% without any increase over the epidemic period. Among the hospitalized patients with influenza, 33.6% (41 out of 122 patients) were accompanied by complications, and pneumonia (28.7%, 35 out of 122 patients) was the most common. Most fatal cases were caused by influenza A (96.2%) after the first epidemic peak. In conclusion, Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity & Mortality was effective for monitoring the trends in circulating influenza activity concurrently with its severity. In the 2011-2012 season, the influenza epidemic persisted for a ≥5-month period, with a bimodal peak of influenza A and B in sequence. Overall, influenza A was more severe than influenza B. J. Med. Virol. 85:910-917, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Seo Y.B.,Korea University | Seo Y.B.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | Cheong H.J.,Korea University | Cheong H.J.,Asian Pacific Influenza Institute APII | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy

The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of four major respiratory viruses among the Korean population. This retrospective study was conducted over four years, from January 2005 to December 2008. Among a total of 23,806 specimens, 5512 virus isolates underwent culture for influenza A and B viruses (IFA/B), parainfluenza virus (PIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus (ADV). Patients were divided into two groups: children/adolescents and adults. The viruses detected in specimens from children/adolescents included PIV (7.8%), RSV (7.3%), ADV (4.0%), IFA (2.9%), and IFB (2.2%). In adults, IFB (5.6%), IFA (4.4%), RSV (1.1%), PIV (0.5%), and ADV (0.2%) were detected, thus demonstrating two distinct patterns of virus infection. Influenza viruses had similar seasonal patterns and periods of infection among children/adolescents and adults; however, the isolation rate in adults was slightly higher than that in children and adolescents. Correlation coefficient analysis based on weekly seasonal patterns indicated that influenza viruses were detected a week earlier in children than in adults. RSV, PIV, and ADV did not show similar trends between the two age groups due to low detection rates and sporadic isolations among adult patients. Of note, different respiratory viruses should be considered depending on patient age when a clinical respiratory viral infection is suspected. Furthermore, in the case of influenza, a preceding epidemic among a pediatric population could be useful to predict a subsequent epidemic among adults. © 2014, Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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