Asian Institute of Gastroenterology

Somajiguda, India

Asian Institute of Gastroenterology

Somajiguda, India
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Talukdar R.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Talukdar R.,Asian Healthcare Foundation | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with distinct biological features. These neoplasms are now being recognized more frequently owing to advances in cross-sectional imaging and increasing awareness. Guidelines for treatment of the common and clinically important PCNs frequently have been revised in view of the continuing controversies and evolving clinical data. This review summarizes the management approaches of the common and clinically important PCNs based on current evidence and guidelines. © 2014 AGA Institute.

Subba Rao M.,Institute of Basic science and Translational Research | Sasikala M.,Institute of Basic science and Translational Research | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) unraveled a mystery in stem cell research, after identification of four re-programming factors for generating pluripotent stem cells without the need of embryos. This breakthrough in generating iPSCs from somatic cells has overcome the ethical issues and immune rejection involved in the use of human embryonic stem cells. Hence, iPSCs form a great potential source for developing disease models, drug toxicity screening and cell-based therapies. These cells have the potential to differentiate into desired cell types, including hepatocytes, under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions given the proper microenvironment. iPSC-derived hepatocytes could be useful as an unlimited source, which can be utilized in disease modeling, drug toxicity testing and producing autologous cell therapies that would avoid immune rejection and enable correction of gene defects prior to cell transplantation. In this review, we discuss the induction methods, role of reprogramming factors, and characterization of iPSCs, along with hepatocyte differentiation from iPSCs and potential applications Further, we discuss the location and detection of liver stem cells and their role in liver regeneration. Although tumor formation and genetic mutations are a cause of concern, iPSCs still form a promising source for clinical applications. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Talukdar R.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Talukdar R.,Asian Healthcare Foundation | Nageshwar Reddy D.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Endoscopy | Year: 2012

Public healthcare has progressed immensely in the past few decades. However, the rural masses in the developing and underdeveloped countries very often have limited access to the advanced healthcare technology. At the Asian Institute of Gastroenterology, Hyderabad, India, the Rural Health Care Project has been initiated in an attempt to provide cost-effective gastrointestinal care to the rural population. The Project was implemented by traveling to remote rural areas in a bus that had been converted into a mobile hospital and equipped with basic diagnostic facilities including a custom-made endoscopy unit. The mobile hospital and endoscopy unit is accompanied by a telemedicine vehicle that transmits all procedures and data to the main telemedicine center at the parent institute in Hyderabad. Our efforts have resulted in cost-effective management and robust data collection of several common gastrointestinal illnesses in remote rural areas of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. To date, 32756 endoscopic procedures have been carried out in a population of over 10 million people spanning 4837 villages. Overall, 72% of the population has had a positive finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (primarily related to acid peptic diseases). Interestingly, <1% of the population have had colonic polyps on screening colonoscopy, whereas the prevalence of infective colitis has been high. This whole exercise has produced a high level of satisfaction among both beneficiaries and care-givers; it has also offered doctors in training the opportunity to encounter and manage common public health-related problems. This program is funded by philanthropic donations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

Rao P.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology | Year: 2014

Conventional ultrasonogram of the abdomen being noninvasive, inexpensive and ubiquitously available is the first imaging modality that raises suspicion of HCC in a patient with chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis. The lesions in liver particularly nodule are being recognized with increased frequency with the wide spread use of ultrasonogram as the initial investigation and computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging subsequently. Any nodule in a cirrhotic liver should be considered as hepatocellular carcinoma until otherwise proved. This approach certainly is helpful in diagnosing HCC at its earliest possible stage to offer meaningful curative measures be it transplant, resection or ablative therapy. After a nodule is detected on ultrasonogram the next imaging modality can be a contrast enhanced study (dynamic CT scan or an MRI) to see if are present or not. Two vital clues for diagnosis of HCC by contrast enhanced imaging are presence of arterial hypervascularity and washout which are considered as "classical imaging features". This sequence of events of arterial uptake followed by washout is highly specific for diagnosis of HCC by imaging. If the features are typical showing classical imaging features (i.e hypervascular in the arterial phase with washout in portal venous or delayed phase) the lesion should be treated as HCC biopsy is not necessary. Nodular lesions showing an atypical imaging pattern, such as iso- or hypovascular in the arterial phase or arterial hypervascularity alone without portal venous washout, should undergo further examinations with another contrast enhanced imaging. Biopsy is advisable for those lesions which do not show classical features on the imaging. © 2014.

Ramchandani M.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2013

Background Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) is a rare disorder but is associated with significant morbidity. Cricopharyngeal (CP) myotomy is the mainstay of treatment, and various flexible endoscopic techniques have been used for division of the septum. However, there is a constant need for improvement in accessories. Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new electrocautery endoscopic scissor for CP myotomy in patients with symptomatic ZD. Design Observational human study. Setting Tertiary-care hospital. Patients This study involved 3 patients with symptomatic ZD. Intervention Flexible endoscopic CP myotomy was performed by using a novel scissors-type grasping device. CP myotomy involved 4 steps: (1) opening of the forceps, (2) grasping the muscle fiber, (3) closure of the forceps with application of gentle traction, and (4) dissection of muscle fibers by using cutting current. Intraprocedural bleeding was controlled with the same instrument by grasping vessels and applying coagulation current. Main Outcome Measurements Overall feasibility and performance, procedure time to achieve complete CP myotomy. Results CP myotomy was successfully performed in all patients. Mean procedure time was 10.6 minutes. There were no major adverse events. Minor intraprocedure bleeding occurred in 1 patient. Limitations Single arm, limited number of patients. Conclusion The new instrument has potential advantages in comparison with standard instruments used for CP myotomy. The advantages of this new technique are better control of cutting and hemostatic abilities. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Puppala J.,Osmania University | Siddapuram S.P.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Akka J.,Osmania University | Munshi A.,Osmania University
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2013

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world today. Its incidence in adults and children is rising rapidly due to the ongoing epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hence, it has become a global public health issue. Environmental factors have been found to play a major role in the etiology of NAFLD, especially for genetically susceptible populations. Among these, one of the most important factors is junk food, especially the typical " Western-style" diet rich in simple carbohydrates, saturated fat, and highly processed food materials. Genetic predisposition to NAFLD does occur; however, a precise definition of genetic factors responsible for NAFLD is still lacking. Specific variants of different genes have been shown to present a risk for NAFLD. Genetic studies might be helpful in the management of the disease by developing novel treatment strategies based on individual's genotype. © 2013.

Gupta R.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Endoscopic stenting is an effective treatment option in the management of both benign biliary strictures and pancreatic ductal strictures. Plastic stents and selfexpandable metal stents have been used with variable success for the management of both benign biliary strictures and pancreatic ductal strictures caused by chronic pancreatitis. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents of improved design represent a major technological advance which has added to the endoscopic armamentarium. Both multiple plastic stents and covered self-expandable metal stents have shown promising results. However, data to support the use of self-expandable metal stents over multiple plastic stents or vice versa are still lacking. © Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary- Pancreatic Surgery and Springer 2011.

Tandan M.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Nageshwar Reddy D.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Extraction of large pancreatic and common bile duct (CBD) calculi has always challenged the therapeutic endoscopist. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an excellent tool for patients with large pancreatic and CBD calculi that are not amenable to routine endotherapy. Pancreatic calculi in the head and body are targeted by ESWL, with an aim to fragment them to < 3 mm diameter so that they can be extracted by subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In our experience, complete clearance of the pancreatic duct was achieved in 76% and partial clearance in 17% of 1006 patients. Short-term pain relief with reduction in the number of analgesics ingested was seen in 84% of these patients. For large CBD calculi, a nasobiliary tube is placed to help target the calculi, as well as bathe the calculi in saline -a simple maneuver which helps to facilitate fragmentation. The aim is to fragment calculi to < 5 mm size and clear the same during ERCP. Complete clearance of the CBD was achieved in 84.4% of and partial clearance in 12.3% of 283 patients. More than 90% of the patients with pancreatic and biliary calculi needed three or fewer sessions of ESWL with 5000 shocks being delivered at each session. The use of epidural anesthesia helped in reducing patient movement. This, together with the better focus achieved with newer third-gen-eration lithotripters, prevents collateral tissue damage and minimizes the complications. Complications in our experience with nearly 1300 patients were minimal, and no extension of hospital stay was required. Similar rates of clearance of pancreatic and biliary calculi with minimal adverse effects have been reported from the centers where ESWL is performed regularly. In view of its high efficiency, non-invasive nature and low complication rates, ESWL can be offered as the first-line therapy for selected patients with large pancreatic and CBD calculi. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Talukdar R.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Talukdar R.,Asian Healthcare Foundation | Inoue H.,Showa University | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques | Year: 2015

Background: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an evolving therapeutic modality for achalasia. We aim to determine efficacy of POEM for the treatment of achalasia and compare it with laparoscopic Heller’s myotomy (LHM). Materials and methods: Systematic review and meta-analyses was conducted on 19 studies using POEM for achalasia. Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane, and Ovid databases, were searched using the terms ‘achalasia’, ‘POEM’, ‘peroral endoscopic myotomy’, ‘per oral endoscopic myotomy’, and ‘per-oral endoscopic myotomy’. Reduction in Eckhart’s score and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure were the main outcome measures. Results: A total of 1,045 patients underwent POEM in 29 studies. Ninety patients undergoing POEM was compared with 160 undergoing LHM in five studies. Nineteen and 14 studies, respectively, evaluated for Eckhart’s score and LES pressure. There was significant reduction in Eckhart’s score and LES pressure with effect sizes of −7.95 (p < 0.0001) and −7.28 (p < 0.0001), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies [(Q = 83.06; I2 = 78.33 %; p < 0.0001) for Eckhart’s score and (Q = 61.44; I2 = 75.68 %; p < 0.0001) for LES pressure]. There were no differences between POEM and LHM in reduction in Eckhart’s score, post-operative pain scores and analgesic requirements, length of hospital stay, adverse events, and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux/reflux esophagitis. Operative time was significantly lower for POEM. Conclusions: POEM is effective for achalasia and has similar outcomes as LHM. Multicenter randomized trials need to be conducted to further compare the efficacy and safety of POEM between treatment naïve achalasia patients and those who failed treatment. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Talukdar R.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Acute pancreatitis (AP) continues to be a clinical challenge. The mortality of patients with AP with adverse outcomes like organ failure and infected necrosis can be as high as 43 %. Highly accurate predictors of adverse outcomes are necessary to identify the high-risk patients so that they can be meticulously monitored and managed. However, there are no ideal predictors till date. Over the past several years, a number of single- and multi-parameter predictors have been identified and tested for prediction of adverse outcomes in AP. Out of the different tools tested, blood urea nitrogen and the harmless acute pancreatitis score appears to be useful and feasible in the management of AP under Indian conditions. Other single-parameter predictors like serum creatinine, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer need to be put to further tests in high-quality prospective studies with large sample size at the community level. Multi-parameter prediction tools like the bedside index of severity of acute pancreatitis may not be appealing in day-to-day clinical practice. © 2013 Indian Society of Gastroenterology.

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