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Ur Rehman H.M.,Asia West | Ur Rehman H.M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Mahmood R.,Asia West | Razaq M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

In Pakistan, a survey for mango gall midges and their natural enemies was initiated for the first time in 2007. Of the gall midge species recorded from mango Procontarinia matteiana Kieffer & Cecconi was one of the most serious pests damaging leaves. It forms solitary or grouped galls on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. In case of severe attack, leaves become curled, ultimately dry and fall, thus indirectly impacting plant yield. It was recorded from all mango growing areas surveyed in Punjab including Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar Khan. Females oviposited on newly developed leaves, larval and pupal stages were completed in galls and adults emerged from galls through small holes. It was active from March to November. At Rahim Yar Khan every year two peaks of its population were observed first in March/April and second in September/October. It underwent diapause as pupae in galls from December to February. The phenology of two parasitoids, Closterocerus pulcherrimus and Synopeas temporale reared from galls of P. matteiana was well synchronized with their host. Their population was low in the year 2008 however with conservation measures it increased during 2009-10 in experimental orchard. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Andrews A.H.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Choat J.H.,James Cook University | Hamilton R.J.,Asia West | Demartini E.E.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2015

Refinements to the methodology of bomb radiocarbon dating made it possible to validate age estimates of the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) and bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum). Age for these species has been estimated from presumed annual growth zones in otoliths at ∼30 and ∼40 years respectively. The validity of these estimates was tested using bomb radiocarbon dating on the small and fragile otoliths of these species, and provided an opportunity to refine the method using advanced technologies. A regional Δ14C reference record from hermatypic coral cores from the Great Barrier Reef was assembled and Δ14C measurements from extracted otolith cores of adult otoliths were successful. Validated ages supported the accuracy of growth zone derived ages using sectioned sagittal otoliths.


Ibrahem M.D.,Cairo University | Fathi M.,Asia West | Mesalhy S.,Suez Canal University | Abd El-Aty A.M.,Cairo University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2010

The in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). Fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin C. The second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg-1), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin C (500 mg kg-1). The survival and growth performances were evaluated. Blood samples were collected from the experimented tilapia, one and two months from the onset of the experiment to measure the hematocrit (HCT) values, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), and lysozyme activity. The protective effect of the two compounds was evaluated via challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. The body weight gain (g); specific growth rate (%), and survival (%) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in group supplemented with inulin and vitamin C after one and two months of exposures vs. the control. The HCT values showed non-significant changes in both supplemented groups after one and two months. The NBT was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the 3rd and 2nd group after one and two months, respectively. On the other hand, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the lysozyme activity has been observed in the 3rd group and in both supplemented groups at 1 and 2 months; respectively. The challenge infection showed an improved relative level of protection (RLP) in the 2 supplemented groups vs. the control. These results suggest that vitamin C at dose rate of 500 mg for one month could be a potential, less expensive, and promising dietary supplementation than inulin that would positively affect growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in aquaculture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Nada K.H.,Asia West | Nada K.H.,Dubai Health Authority | Suliman E.D.A.,Asia West | Suliman E.D.A.,Dubai Health Authority
AIDS | Year: 2010

Objectives: To measure the prevalence of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and related factors in a large, probability-based sample of boys and girls aged 12-17 years living on the streets of Egypt's largest urban centers of Greater Cairo and Alexandria. Methods: Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of street children. Procedures entailed using key informants and field observation to create a sampling frame of locations at predetermined time intervals of the day, where street children congregate in the two cities, selecting a random sample of time-locations from the complete list, and intercepting children in the selected time-locations to assess eligibility and conduct interviews. Interviews gathered basic demographic information, life events on the street (including violence, abuse, forced sex), sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. Results: A total of 857 street children were enrolled in the two cities, with an age, sex, and time-location composition matching the sampling frame. The majority of these children had faced harassment or abuse (93%) typically by police and other street children, had used drugs (62%), and, among the older adolescents, were sexually active (67%). Among the sexually active 15-17-year-olds, most reported multiple partners (54%) and never using condoms (52%). Most girls (53% in Greater Cairo and 90% in Alexandria) had experienced sexual abuse. The majority of street children experienced more than one of these risks. Overlaps with populations at highest risk for HIV were substantial, namely men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, and injection drug users. Conclusion: Our study using a randomized TLS approach produced a rigorous, diverse, probability-based sample of street children and documented very high levels of multiple concurrent risks. Our findings strongly advocate for multiple services including those addressing HIV and STI prevention and care, substance use, shelters, and sensitization of authorities to the plight of street children in Egypt. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Nose K.,Asia West | Hatake S.,Asia West
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

Massive earthquake named "Tonankai Massive earthquake" is predicted to occur in the near future and is feared to cause severe damage in Kinki District. "Hanshin-Awaji Massive Earthquake" in 1995 destroyed most of the buildings constructed before 1981 and not complying with the latest earthquake resistance standards. Collapsed buildings blocked roads, obstructed evacuation, rescue and firefighting operations and inflicted further damages. To alleviate the damages, it is important to predict the points where collapsed buildings are likely block the roads and to take precautions in advance. But big cities have an expanse of urban areas with densely-distributed buildings, and it requires time and cost to check each and every building whether or not it will block the road. In order to reduce blocked roads when a disaster strikes, we made a study and confirmed that the risk of road blocking can be determined easily by means of the latest technologies of survey and geographical information.


Malve H.,Asia West
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2016

With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 83.


Malve H.,Asia West
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2016

Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 83.


El-Mohandes M.A.,Asia West
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Methyl bromide (MB) is a fumigant that has been used to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and for disinfestations of durables and perishable commodities. At the moment, MB is the main fumigant in use for dates' disinfection. Fumigation must not be carried out when the fruit is fresh, harvested at the khalal stage or when stored under deep refrigeration. The average practical dose is 15 g/m 3 for 12-24 hours at 15-16°C. However, MB is one of the most powerful chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. In 1997, the Meetings of the Parties required that developed countries phase out MB by 2005 and by 2015 in developing countries. According to 2006 Assessment Reports of the UNEP's MB Technical Options Committee, alternatives to MB have been identified for about 95% of controlled uses. However, no technically and economically effective alternatives are identified for high-moisture dates. Many feasible alternatives to MB for dates' disinfestations are known of which are heat treatments, heat and carbon dioxide, phosphine (PH3), sulfuryl fluoride, ethyl formate, modified atmosphere and phosphine/CO 2 mixture. In this respect, two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of modified atmospheres (MAs) as well as MAs/PH 3 mixture on controlling Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Tribolium confusum in stored dates. The results of the first experiment indicated that application of MAs alone achieved 100% mortality of tested pests after 36-48h, depending on the type of the pest and CO 2 concentration. The second experiment indicated that 100% mortality of tested pests' stages was achieved after 6h only when CO 2 was combined with half the recommended dose of PH3. It can be concluded that the use of CO 2 in combination with PH3 significantly shortened the time required to achieve complete mortality of infesting pests. Simultaneously, this treatment did not cause any noticeable changes in the tested chemical properties of treated fruits.


Bhat N.,Asia West | Anupama N.K.,Asia West | Yelsangikar A.,Asia West | Vizhi K.,Asia West
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Chronic diarrhea is a common clinical problem in gastroenterology practice and often difficult to diagnose the cause. Presence of villous atrophy in these subjects is not specific as differential diagnosis can be broad. Drug-induced diarrhea is often overlooked during the evaluation. We report a short series of such challenging small bowel diarrhea secondary to olmesartan-related sprue-like enteropathy. © 2014, Indian Society of Gastroenterology.


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