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Malve H.,Asia West
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2016

Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 83.

Malve H.,Asia West
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2016

With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 83.

Ibrahem M.D.,Cairo University | Fathi M.,Asia West | Mesalhy S.,Suez Canal University | Abd El-Aty A.M.,Cairo University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2010

The in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). Fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin C. The second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg-1), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin C (500 mg kg-1). The survival and growth performances were evaluated. Blood samples were collected from the experimented tilapia, one and two months from the onset of the experiment to measure the hematocrit (HCT) values, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), and lysozyme activity. The protective effect of the two compounds was evaluated via challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. The body weight gain (g); specific growth rate (%), and survival (%) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in group supplemented with inulin and vitamin C after one and two months of exposures vs. the control. The HCT values showed non-significant changes in both supplemented groups after one and two months. The NBT was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the 3rd and 2nd group after one and two months, respectively. On the other hand, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the lysozyme activity has been observed in the 3rd group and in both supplemented groups at 1 and 2 months; respectively. The challenge infection showed an improved relative level of protection (RLP) in the 2 supplemented groups vs. the control. These results suggest that vitamin C at dose rate of 500 mg for one month could be a potential, less expensive, and promising dietary supplementation than inulin that would positively affect growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) in aquaculture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

El-Mohandes M.A.,Asia West
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Methyl bromide (MB) is a fumigant that has been used to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and for disinfestations of durables and perishable commodities. At the moment, MB is the main fumigant in use for dates' disinfection. Fumigation must not be carried out when the fruit is fresh, harvested at the khalal stage or when stored under deep refrigeration. The average practical dose is 15 g/m 3 for 12-24 hours at 15-16°C. However, MB is one of the most powerful chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. In 1997, the Meetings of the Parties required that developed countries phase out MB by 2005 and by 2015 in developing countries. According to 2006 Assessment Reports of the UNEP's MB Technical Options Committee, alternatives to MB have been identified for about 95% of controlled uses. However, no technically and economically effective alternatives are identified for high-moisture dates. Many feasible alternatives to MB for dates' disinfestations are known of which are heat treatments, heat and carbon dioxide, phosphine (PH3), sulfuryl fluoride, ethyl formate, modified atmosphere and phosphine/CO 2 mixture. In this respect, two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of modified atmospheres (MAs) as well as MAs/PH 3 mixture on controlling Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Tribolium confusum in stored dates. The results of the first experiment indicated that application of MAs alone achieved 100% mortality of tested pests after 36-48h, depending on the type of the pest and CO 2 concentration. The second experiment indicated that 100% mortality of tested pests' stages was achieved after 6h only when CO 2 was combined with half the recommended dose of PH3. It can be concluded that the use of CO 2 in combination with PH3 significantly shortened the time required to achieve complete mortality of infesting pests. Simultaneously, this treatment did not cause any noticeable changes in the tested chemical properties of treated fruits.

Das A.,P.A. College | Das S.,P.A. College | Mandal A.,BS Medical College | Halder A.,Asia West
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2012

Expansion of cerebral tuberculomas or their new appearance as a manifestation of paradoxical reaction in patients under antituberculous chemotherapy is well documented. Distinguishing paradoxical reaction from disease progression or treatment failure is an important issue in tuberculosis management. Five cases of cerebral tuberculomas are reported here as manifestations of paradoxical reaction in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis on antituberculous treatment. Case 1 and 2 had tuberculous meningitis, Case 3 had miliary tuberculosis, Case 4 had miliary tuberculosis and destructive vertebral lesions, and Case 5 had pulmonary tuberculosis. Continuation of antituberculous drugs and addition of steroids led to full recovery of all patients.

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