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Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Jeemon P.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Jeemon P.,Public Health Foundation of India | Jeemon P.,University of Glasgow
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Traditional risk factors explain most of the risk associated with coronary heart disease, and after adjustment for risk factors family history was believed to contribute very little to population-attributable risk of coronary heart disease. However, the INTERHEART study demonstrated an independent association of family history of coronary heart disease with acute myocardial infarction. To assess this relationship more comprehensively in multiple datasets in different populations, we carried out a detailed review of the available evidence. Case-control studies involving 17,202 cases and 30,088 controls yielded a pooled unadjusted odds ratio (random-effects model, overall I2 = 64.6%, P = 0.000) of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.79-2.30), whereas cohort studies that included 313,837 individuals yielded an unadjusted relative risk for future coronary heart disease (random-effects model, overall I2 = 88.7%, P = 0.000) of 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-1.77). Although the presence of family history of coronary heart disease indicates a cumulative exposure of shared genes and environment, the risk estimates for family history did not attenuate significantly after adjustment for conventional coronary heart disease risk factors in several studies. It is probably an oversimplification to dichotomize the family history variable into a simple "yes" or "no" risk factor, as the significance of family history is influenced by several variables, such as age, sex, number of relatives, and age at onset of disease in the relatives. Moreover, a quantitative risk-assessment model for the family history variable, such as the "family risk score," has a positive linear relationship with coronary heart disease. More studies are warranted to assess the benefits and risks of intensive interventions, both targeted individually and at the family level, among individuals with a valid family history and borderline elevated risk factors. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.


Salahuddin S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Roy A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Global Heart | Year: 2012

Cigarette smoking is a leading preventable risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Epidemiologic studies conclusively prove that both active smoking and secondhand smoke contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality related to CVD. Cigarette smoke is a mixture of several toxic chemicals, of which nicotine, carbon monoxide, and oxidant chemicals are most commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Tobacco causes endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, alteration of lipid profile, hemodynamic alterations, and a hypercoagulable state. All of these act synergistically as pathobiologic mechanisms of atherothrombosis in tobacco users. © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huffman M.D.,Northwestern University | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Abraham A.K.,Indira Gandhi Memorial Cooperative Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2013

Background-In-hospital and postdischarge treatment rates for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain low in India. However, little is known about the prevalence and associations of the package of optimal ACS medical care in India. Our objective was to define the prevalence, associations, and impact of optimal in-hospital and discharge medical therapy in the Kerala ACS Registry of 25 718 admissions. Methods and Results-We defined optimal in-hospital ACS medical therapy as receiving the following 5 medications: aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, β-blocker, and statin. We defined optimal discharge ACS medical therapy as receiving all of the above therapies except heparin. Comparisons by optimal versus nonoptimal ACS care were made via Student t test for continuous variables and X2 test for categorical variables. We created random effects logistic regression models to evaluate the association between Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score variables and optimal in-hospital or discharge medical therapy. Optimal in-hospital and discharge medical care were delivered in 40% and 46% of admissions, respectively. Wide variability in both in-hospital and discharge medical care was present, with few hospitals reaching consistently high (>90%) levels. Patients receiving optimal in-hospital medical therapy had an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.93 (0.71, 1.22) for in-hospital death and an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.79 (0.63, 0.99) for major adverse cardiovascular event rates. Patients who received optimal in-hospital medical care were far more likely to receive optimal discharge care (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 10.48 [9.37, 11.72]). Conclusions-Strategies to improve in-hospital and discharge medical therapy are needed to improve local process-of-care measures and ACS outcomes in Kerala. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Choudhry N.K.,Harvard University | Choudhry N.K.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Dugani S.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Shrank W.H.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2014

Statin use has increased substantially in North America and Europe, with resultant reductions in cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about statin use in lower-income countries. India is of interest because of its burden of cardiovascular disease, the unique nature of its prescription drug market, and the growing globalization of drug sales. We conducted an observational study using IMS Health data for the period February 2006-January 2010. During the period, monthly statin prescriptions increased from 45.8 to 84.1 per 1,000 patients with coronary heart disease-an increase of 0.80 prescriptions per month. The proportion of the Indian population receiving a defined daily statin dose increased from 3.35 percent to 7.78 percent. Nevertheless, only a fraction of those eligible for a statin appeared to receive the therapy, even though there were 259 distinct statin products available to Indian consumers in January 2010. Low rates of statin use in India may reflect problems with access to health care, affordability, underdiagnosis, and cultural beliefs. Because of the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in lower-income countries such as India, there is an urgent need to increase statin use and ensure access to safe products whose use is based on evidence. Policies are needed to expand insurance, increase medications' affordability, educate physicians and patients, and improve regulatory oversight. © 2014 Project HOPE- The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.


Mendenhall E.,Georgetown University | Norris S.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Shidhaye R.,Indian Institute of Public Health and Public Health Foundation of India | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Eighty percent of people with type 2 diabetes reside in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet much of the research around depression among people with diabetes has been conducted in high-income countries (HICs). In this systematic review we searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, and PsychINFO for studies that assessed depression among people with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Our focus on quantitative studies provided a prevalence of comorbid depression among those with diabetes. We reviewed 48 studies from 1,091 references. We found that this research has been conducted primarily in middle-income countries, including India (n=8), Mexico (n=8), Brazil (n=5), and China (n=5). There was variation in prevalence of comorbid depression across studies, but these differences did not reveal regional differences and seemed to result from study sample (e.g., urban vs rural and clinical vs population-based samples). Fifteen depression inventories were administered across the studies. We concluded that despite substantial diabetes burden in LMICs, few studies have reviewed comorbid depression and diabetes. Our review suggests depression among people with diabetes in LMICs may be higher than in HICs. Evidence from these 48 studies underscores the need for comprehensive mental health care that can be integrated into diabetes care within LMIC health systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pradeepa R.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing in epidemic proportions globally, with the most marked increase in emerging economies. Among emerging economies, China and India have the highest numbers of people with diabetes and CVD. Over the last two decades, 80% of CVD and diabetes mortality occurred in low- and middle-income countries, suggesting that these disorders have become a leading threat to public health in most of the developing countries. The burden of CVD and diabetes in the developing countries affects the productive younger age group, and this has serious economic implications. Diabetes shares many characteristics and risk factors with CVD, and thus the risk for CVD also escalates with the increase in prevalence of diabetes. Both genetic and environmental factors play a major role in causation of diabetes and CVD. However, the major drivers of this dual epidemic are demographic changes with increased life expectancy, lifestyle changes due to rapid urbanization, and industrialization. To reduce the burden of diabetes and CVD in the coming decades, emerging economies need to set national goals for early diagnosis, effective management, and primary prevention of these disorders. In order to curb the epidemic of diabetes and CVD, population-based, multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and culturally relevant approaches including various departments of the government as well as non-governmental agencies are required. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Singh K.,Asia Risk Centre | Reddy K.S.,Public Health Foundation of India | Prabhakaran D.,CCDC
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2011

The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption) through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol). Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses.


Rose G.,University of Reading | Osborne T.,Asia Risk Centre | Greatrex H.,Columbia University | Wheeler T.,University of Reading
Climatic Change | Year: 2016

Global surface temperature is projected to warm over the coming decades, with regional differences expected in temperature change, rainfall and the frequency of extreme events. Temperature is a major determinant of crop growth and development, affecting planting date, growing season length and yield. We investigated the effects of increments of mean global temperature warming from 0.5 °C to 4 °C on soybean and maize development and yield, both globally and for the main producing countries, and simulated adaptation through changing planting date and variety. Increasing temperature resulted in reduced growing season lengths and ultimately reduced yields for both crops. The global yield for maize decreased as temperature increased, although the severity of the decrease was dependent on geographic region. Small temperature increases of 0.5 °C had no effect on soybean yield, although yield decreased as temperature increased. These negative effects, however, were partly compensated for by the implementation of adaptation strategies including planting earlier in the season and changing variety. The degree of compensation was dependent on geographical area and crop, with maize adaptation delaying the negative effects of temperature on yield, compared to soybean adaptation which increased yield in China, India and Korea DPR as well as delaying the effects in the remaining countries. The results of this paper indicate the degree to which farmer-controlled adaptation strategies can alleviate the negative impacts of increasing temperature on two major crop species. © 2016, The Author(s).


Nair M.,Asia Risk Centre | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre
Global Heart | Year: 2012

South Asians have a higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) due to both pathophysiological and life course-related risk factors. We performed a literature search and used qualitative synthesis to present evidence for CAD risk factors among South Asians. A large proportion of the higher risk of South Asians for CAD can be explained by conventional risk factors. However, several conditioning factors such as education, socioeconomic status, and fetal programming, and early life influences may contribute to excess CAD risk in South Asians, suggesting the need for a life course approach. Evidence on unconventional risk factors is provocative but comes from small studies. Large-scale, well-designed epidemiological studies are needed for an in-depth understanding of the CAD risk among South Asians. © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Publishedby Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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