Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity

www.apic.edu.tw
Miaoli, Taiwan

Asia-Pacific Institute of Creativity is an educational college in Toufen Township, Miaoli County, Taiwan. Wikipedia.


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Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

In this study, we prepare Cu(ReTa) and Cu(ReTaNx ) films via reactive cosputtering of copper (Cu), rhenium (Re), and tantalum (Ta) on a barrierless silicon (Si) substrate in an argon-nitrogen (Ar-N2) atmosphere. These Cu(ReTa) and Cu(ReTaNx ) films, after annealing at 630 and 750°C for 1 h, exhibit two values of resistivity, viz., 3.05 and 2.35 cm, respectively, showing high thermal stability without copper-silicide formation. The Cu(ReTaNx ) film's up-to-750°C high-temperature stability, while maintaining a low leakage current and resistivity, appears to make it a good candidate material for advanced barrierless metallization for simplifying related electronic-device manufacturing processes, and, consequently, reducing the related manufacturing cost. Applying X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion-beam microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate said film, we observed that the Cu seed layer-Si interface showed no detrimental reaction after the film was annealed at 750°C for 1 h. The film, hence, is recommended for the desired purpose. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2015

In this study, we explore new Cu(Ge) and Cu(GeNx) films for LED heat dissipation. The films are Cu-alloy seed layers, fabricated by co-sputtering Cu and Ge in an Ar or N2 atmosphere on either Ta/Al2O3 or polyimide substrates. The Cu alloy films are then annealed at 600 and 730 °C, respectively, for 1 h without notable Cu oxide formation at the Cu-Ta/Al2O3 interface. No Cu oxide is formed at the Cu-polyimide interface either after annealing the films at 310 °C for 1 h. The film formed atop an Al2O3 substrate contains a trace amount of GeNx and is thermally stable up to 730 °C, and the film formed atop a polyimide substrate is thermally stable up to 310 °C, both exhibiting a low resistivity and a high thermal conductivity. Such a thermal feature makes the Cu(GeNx) film a good candidate material in barrierless metallization for many industrial applications, such as LED heat sinks. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

In this study, copper (Cu) alloy films developed by reactive co-sputtering of Cu with iridium (Ir) in an Ar/N 2 atmosphere to render Cu(Ir) and Cu(IrN x ) seed layers on barrierless Si substrates are found to exhibit great thermal stability, low resistivity, and a good adhesion feature. The Cu(Ir) and Cu(IrN x ) films are annealed at 650 and 730 °C for 1 h, displaying good thermal stability with low leakage current for the latter and low resistivity values of 4.32 and 2.67 μΩcm, respectively; no copper silicide formation occurs at the Cu-Si interface. The IrN x 's thermal stability and low resistivity reveal that the Cu(IrN x ) is a good candidate for advanced barrierless metallization in forming a new type of interconnect for electronic components, such as capacitors. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

In this study, a copper alloy [Cu(GeNx)] film is developed for industrial applications by cosputtering Cu and Ge targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the alloy film shows good thermal stability and adhesion to the substrate with no noticeable interactions between the film and the substrate after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h. The new Cu(GeNx) alloy film also renders adequate wetting for solders, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than pure Cu by at least one order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to Ni. The alloy film seems suitable for industrial applications in, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture and, the replacement of the wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy. © 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2016

In this study, a new copper alloy [Cu(AuTiNx)] film is developed for industrial applications, by cosputtering Cu and titanium gold (AuTi) targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the new alloy film, after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h, shows good thermal stability and high adhesion strength to the substrate, without appreciable interactions between the film and the substrate. The new Cu(AuTiNx) alloy film also has adequate wetting for solder, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than that of pure Cu by at least 1 order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to that of Ni. The alloy film seems to be suitable for many industrial applications, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture, and as new wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Huang W.-L.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Computer, Intelligent Computing and Education Technology - Selected Peer Reviewed Papers From 2014 International Conference on Computer, Intelligent Computing and Education Technology, CICET 2014 | Year: 2014

Fungal virulence factors are molecules expressed and secreted by fungal pathogens that cause many serious diseases in plants and animals. Targeting virulence factors is helpful for vaccine development to combat fungal infections. However, few methods pay attention to characterize virulence factors and advance to understand their reverent functions. This study proposes a knowledge acquisition method based on if-then rules for predicting fungal virulence factors (called FuVF). FuVF identifies nonvirulent and four types of virulence factors, adhesion, toxin, secretion, and biofilm by using top-ranked Gene Ontology terms (GO) with amino acid composition. The top-ranked GO terms are selected by according to their numbers of annotated proteins in the dataset. Based on these features, FuVF generates several if-then rules by using the decision tree mechanism for characterizing fungal virulence factors. The top-ranked informative rules with high certainty grades reveal that five terms and three amino acid compositions of T, Y and S are effective in distinguishing virulence factors in fungi. The five terms comprise GO:0009405 (pathogenesis), GO:0005886 (plasma membrane), GO:0006508 (proteolysis), GO:0016757 (transferase activity) and GO:0016021 (integral to membrane). © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

In this study, a new Cu alloy, Cu(TiIrNx), film containing a trace amount of TiIrNx is formed by cosputtering Cu, Ti, and Ir on a barrierless (barrierfree) Ta/Al2O3 substrate within a vacuum chamber filled with either Ar or N2 gas. The Cu(TiIrN x) film formed via this barrierless metallization process reveals a resistivity of 2.63μΩcm and a thermal conductivity of 438Wm -1K-1 after being annealed at 720°C for 1h, exhibiting a fine thermal conductivity and stability. The film produces no oxidation compounds during the annealing and, via our tests conducted in this study, appeas to be promising for some thermal dissipation-related applications, such as LEDs' heat dissipation. © 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011

The Cu(SnNx) alloy film formed in this study by doping a minute amount of Sn or SnN in a copper film via barrier-free Cu metallization method exhibits a good stability at high temperatures, an apparent improvement in adhesion and a greater electrical reliability, including low resistivity, lower leakage current in Cu(SnNx)-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, a longer time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) lifetime. The copper alloy films fabricated with this barrier-free Cu metallization method shall be suitable for application in future interconnects. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Lin C.-H.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

A new copper alloy that shows fine thermal stability and adhesion to the substrate is developed in this study by cosputtering Cu, Ti, and Ir on a barrierless Si substrate within an Ar/N2 gas atmosphere to form a Cu(TiIrNx) film. To reduce manufacture cost, we can replace both the wetting and diffusion layers underneath flip-chip solder joints in conventional under bump metallurgy with this thermally stable film, which exhibits weak, if any, interactions between the film and the substrate after annealing at 700 °C for 1 h. The alloy film's dissolution rate is lower than that of pure Cu by at least one order of magnitude, with a fine solderability similar to that of pure Cu. The film developed in this study seems to be a good candidate material for barrierless Si metallization and/or flip-chip solder bump application, with a low consumption rate comparable to that of Ni. © 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


Huang W.-L.,Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2012

Protein secretion is an important biological process for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several sequence-based methods mainly rely on utilizing various types of complementary features to design accurate classifiers for predicting non-classical secretory proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) terms are increasing informative in predicting protein functions. However, the number of used GO terms is often very large. For example, there are 60,020 GO terms used in the prediction method Euk-mPLoc 2.0 for subcellular localization. This study proposes a novel approach to identify a small set of m top-ranked GO terms served as the only type of input features to design a support vector machine (SVM) based method Sec-GO to predict non-classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To evaluate the Sec-GO method, two existing methods and their used datasets are adopted for performance comparisons. The Sec-GO method using m=436 GO terms yields an independent test accuracy of 96.7% on mammalian proteins, much better than the existing method SPRED (82.2%) which uses frequencies of tri-peptides and short peptides, secondary structure, and physicochemical properties as input features of a random forest classifier. Furthermore, when applying to Gram-positive bacterial proteins, the Sec-GO with m=158 GO terms has a test accuracy of 94.5%, superior to NClassG+ (90.0%) which uses SVM with several feature types, comprising amino acid composition, di-peptides, physicochemical properties and the position specific weighting matrix. Analysis of the distribution of secretory proteins in a GO database indicates the percentage of the non-classical secretory proteins annotated by GO is larger than that of classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Of the m top-ranked GO features, the top-four GO terms are all annotated by such subcellular locations as GO:0005576 (Extracellular region). Additionally, the method Sec-GO is easily implemented and its web tool of prediction is available at iclab.life.nctu.edu.tw/secgo. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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