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Lozano-Maya J.R.,Asia Pacific Energy Research Center
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2016

In consideration of the size and geographic concentration of proved conventional gas reserves and the potential role of natural gas to reduce the carbon intensity of energy demand, unconventional gas resources have become increasingly important to expand natural gas supplies. Shale gas in particular has gained international relevance in recent years, largely due to its rapid development and game-changing effects in the United States and its wider and larger distribution worldwide over conventional gas reserves; nonetheless, developing shale gas in other countries has been much slower, as it presents increased risks that span multiple interlinked dimensions and differ across the perceptions of an ample array of stakeholders in diverse contextual settings. The premises presented in this paper attempt to advance a holistic framework for shale gas development which comprises several factors grouped in three major interlinked domains: access to natural resources, industry capabilities and governance. To empirically test its premises under contextual variations, the framework is further used to consistently analyze the cases of Canada, China and Mexico. Findings confirm the interdisciplinary nature of shale gas development and suggest that governance is the most critical domain to bring about changes that improve the management of underlying risks. © 2016 The Author

Lozano Maya J.R.,Asia Pacific Energy Research Center
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Shale gas has gained increasing worldwide attention in the light of the rapid production and significant effects seen in the United States. Using this case as a reference, several countries have taken the first steps to develop their own resources, with Mexico in particular including shale gas in its energy planning priorities and rushing towards its commercial production, although results have still remained elusive. This paper argues that due to the intrinsic complexity embedded in the shale gas development of the United States, its use as a benchmark by Mexico for policy making purposes is misleading, given the challenges in reproducing the same factors of success on the basis of the contextual differences between both countries. The findings presented can ultimately be helpful for other countries looking forward to or in the process of developing their shale gas resources driven by the same reference. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Liddle B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liddle B.,Asia Pacific Energy Research Center | Lung S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

This paper disaggregates energy consumption and GDP data according to end-use to analyze a broad number of developed and developing countries grouped in panels by similar characteristics. Panel long-run causality is assessed with a relatively under-utilized approach recommend by Canning and Pedroni (2008) [1]. We examine (i) reduced form production function models for both the industry and service/commercial sectors, where aggregate energy consumption is expected to cause aggregate output; and (ii) reduced form demand models, where income is expected to cause (separately) per capita residential electricity consumption and per capita gasoline consumption. We uncover for 12 different panels a set of super-consistent causality findings across two demand models that income "Granger-causes" per capita consumption. By contrast, the results from the production function models suggest that a different modeling framework is required to glean new, useful insights. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liddle B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liddle B.,Asia Pacific Energy Research Center | Lung S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2015

Despite the current interest in using fuel taxes as an instrument for climate policy, there has been little study of current automotive fuel tax regimes. We expand on two earlier cross-sectional studies on why fuel taxes differ across countries by using OECD panel data and employing heterogeneous panel cointegration and long-run panel Granger-causality techniques. We confirm some of those earlier studies' conclusions. Further, we find that governments that rely on consumption-based taxes for revenues will have higher gasoline tax rates (than governments that rely on income and wealth/property-based taxes). But more significantly, we determine that higher gasoline demand among consumers "causes" democratic governments to set lower gasoline taxes-a finding with important implications for today's climate/energy policy debate. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Liddle B.,Asia Pacific Energy Research Center | Liddle B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liddle B.,Economy Energy
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2015

Knowledge of the carbon emissions elasticities of income and population is important both for climate change policy/negotiations and for generating projections of carbon emissions. However, previous estimations of these elasticities using the well-known STIRPAT framework have produced such wide-ranging estimates that they add little insight. This paper presents estimates of the STIRPAT model that address that shortcoming, as well as the issues of cross-sectional dependence, heterogeneity, and the nonlinear transformation of a potentially integrated variable, i.e., income. Among the findings are that the carbon emissions elasticity of income is highly robust; and that the income elasticity for OECD countries is less than one, and likely less than the non-OECD country income elasticity, which is not significantly different from one. By contrast, the carbon emissions elasticity of population is not robust; however, that elasticity is likely not statistically significantly different from one for either OECD or non-OECD countries. Lastly, the heterogeneous estimators were exploited to reject a carbon Kuznets curve: while the country-specific income elasticities declined over observed average income-levels, the trend line had a slight U-shape. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Aims: Energy intensity (energy demand per unit of economic output) is one of the most widely used indicators of energy efficiency in energy policy discussions. Yet its application in real-world policymaking can be surprisingly problematical. This paper aims to provide guidance to governments and organizations considering using energy intensity as a policy objective. Scope: In 2007 the APEC community adopted, then in 2011 revised, an APEC region-wide energy intensity improvement goal. This paper presents a case study of that experience, focusing on three key 'lessons learned'. These lessons are not original findings. However, none of them have received the recognition they deserve, and consequently, they came as a surprise to many of those involved in APEC's policy discussions. Conclusions: The three lessons are as follows: (1) Energy intensity improvement is happening surprisingly quickly, but not quickly enough to meet the world's energy challenges. (2) It is difficult to find a definition of energy intensity that can make it suitable for use as an indicator of regional energy efficiency. (3) Whether the GDP's of individual economies are converted to common currency using market exchange rates or purchasing power parity (PPP) can dramatically change regional energy intensity improvement calculations. © 2013 The Author.

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