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Vespe F.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

The huge amount of GPS Radio Occultation (RO) observations currently available thanks to space mission like COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, TERRASAR-X etc., have greatly encouraged the research of new algorithms suitable to extract humidity, temperature and pressure profiles of the atmosphere in a more and more precise way. For what concern the humidity profiles in these last years two different approaches have been widely proved and applied: the "Simple" and the 1DVAR methods. The Simple methods essentially determine dry refractivity profiles from temperature analysis profiles and hydrostatic equation. Then the dry refractivity is subtracted from RO refractivity to achieve the wet component. Finally from the wet refractivity is achieved humidity. The 1DVAR approach combines RO observations with profiles given by the background models with both the terms weighted with the inverse of covariance matrix. The advantage of "Simple" methods is that they are not affected by bias due to the background models. We have proposed in the past an our approach to retrieve humidity. Our approach can be classified among the "Simple" methods. Our approach works with dry atmospheric CIRA-Q models which depend on latitude, DoY and height. The dry CIRA-Q refractivity profile is selected estimating the involved parameters in a non linear least square fashion achieved by fitting RO observed bending angles through the stratosphere. our approach as well as all the other "Simple" methods, has as drawback the unphysical occurrence of negative "humidity". Thus we propose to apply a weighting strategy based on the residuals of the fit just to minimize the effects of this inconvenient. After a proper tuning of the approach, we plan to present the results of the validation.


Venturini R.,Thales Alenia | Spadoni F.,Thales Alenia | Croci R.,Thales Alenia | Torre A.,Thales Alenia | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar, EUSAR 2014 | Year: 2014

"COSMO - SkyMed di Seconda Generazione" (COSMO SG) is a programme funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and by the Italian Ministry of Defence (I-MoD), and conducted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with I-MoD at the aim of pursuing a twofold goal: assuring SAR data continuity to the users of "COSMO - SkyMed" (CSK) and enhancing the capability of that system in terms of functionalities and performance. In accordance with the mentioned objectives, COSMO SG will enable astonishing Earth observation capabilities, satisfying emerging needs of both civilian and military users. Within the frame of this programme, to comply to the applicable user's requirements, Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A is charged of developing an innovative multi-mode X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), to confirm the image quality performance of CSK, to improve the resolution achievable by the system and to provide the novel capability of supporting acquisitions based on simultaneous dual polarisation on receive. This paper provides a description of the SAR instrument design, gives an outline of the key parameters of the instrument and describes the main enabling technologies developed in order to implement this design. © VDE VERLAG GMBH · Berlin · Offenbach, Germany.


Calabrese D.,Thales Alenia | Croce A.,Thales Alenia | Spera G.,Thales Alenia | Venturini R.,Thales Alenia | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar, EUSAR 2014 | Year: 2014

COSMO-SkyMed is the most important Italian Earth Observation space program. The program is funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and Italian Ministry of Defence (I-MoD) and conducted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in conjunction with I-MoD. COSMO Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to the requirements stated by ASI and I-MoD, at the twofold need of ensuring operational continuity to the currently operating "first generation" COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) spacecraft constellation, while achieving a generational step ahead in terms of functionality and performances. In order to ensure such continuity, the new CSG satellites will be ready for operations timely to replace the previous generation satellites whenever they are being progressively phased out at the end of their lifetime. In the current days, after having defined the mission fundamentals of the CSG space borne imaging radar system, the detailed design of both space and ground segments elements has been undertaken. In this frame this paper delineates the key concepts of the CSG system in terms of service improvement and relation with CSK. The improved quality of the imaging service is among the foremost characteristics of CSG, providing the End Users with new/enhanced capabilities in terms of higher number of images and increased image quality (i.e. larger swath, and finer resolution) with respect to COSMO-SkyMed (first generation) spacecraft currently in operations, along with additional capabilities (e.g. full polarimetric SAR acquisition mode) and a greater operative versatility in programming and sharing the system resources among different typologies of Users that request images of different characteristics. Further, while describing the above mentioned topics, this paper shows the key aspects of the CSG engineering approach adopted in order to conceive CSG, that starting from the User requirements ends with the design of the lowest-level system building blocks. Besides, key elements both at space and ground segments are highlighted within this paper. © VDE VERLAG GMBH · Berlin · Offenbach, Germany.


Scorzafava E.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Covello F.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Cascone D.,Thales Alenia | Anania A.,Thales Alenia
Advances in the Astronautical Sciences | Year: 2015

This paper describes a mixed Control Moment Gyroscope and Reactions Wheels based AOCS developed for COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation. The proposed architecture and control structure permits to optimal coordinate the functioning of the two actuators in order to maximize the exploitation of the CMG performances. The paper results show that the proposed solution permits to dramatically increase the platform's agility capability.


Giardi M.T.,CNR Institute of Crystallography | Touloupakis E.,Biosensor | Touloupakis E.,University of Crete | Bertolotto D.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Mascetti G.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing subjects. In this report, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly at low doses, in relation to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Devoti R.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Pietrantonio G.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Pisani A.R.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Riguzzi F.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
International Association of Geodesy Symposia | Year: 2016

Over the last few years numerous GPS networks in Italy have been installed and managed, mainly by local authorities and institutions. Therefore the GPS stations have been constructed with a variety of different monument types according to their needs and have been operated in fairly different environmental conditions, such as in towns or industrial regions, in the open country or mountainous regions. In this work we aim to assess the reliability and repeatability of the station positions and to study the noise property of different categories of GPS monument types. We analyze over 500 continuous GPS time series in Italy with a mean temporal length of 5.6 years. All the GPS observations were processed with the Bernese v5.0 software using a loose constraints approach. We include 45 sites in central Europe that are used as fiducial stations in the regional reference frame realization. After fitting a linear drift, offsets and annual sinusoids and after filtering a common mode movement of the whole network, the residual GPS time series represents the noise of each GPS station. We analyze the residuals using different power spectrum estimation schemes and estimate a power law noise model for each time series. The average noise characteristics are compatible with outcomes from earlier studies but we were not able to isolate distinct noise behaviors between different GPS monument types nor to ascertain a preferred monumentation, as far as noise amplitude and spectral indexes are concerned. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Barilli M.,SELEX Galileo | Bartoli A.,SELEX Galileo | Dami M.,SELEX Galileo | Flamini E.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The authors present the tradeoff and the merit criteria that lead to the selection of the M. Brunn [1] "un obscured four mirrors based telescope" as the collimator of the Optical Ground Support Equipment in the frame of the Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) activities forecast for the optical characterization of the High Resolution Camera (HRIC) on board of the Simbio-sys mission to Mercury, instrument currently under development and manufacturing at Selex Galileo (SG) facilities in its Florence site. Several optical configurations have been accounted for the design and manufacturing of the three meters focal length, diffraction limited and wide field of view (0.4X0.6 degs) toolkit. From the classical un obscured systems such as the aspheric solution based onto two hyperbolic mirror, working under an f - number of 13.6, the Brunn solution revealed excellent optical quality free from coma, astigmatism and spherical aberration accomplished by an ultra compact design in within a volume of 1.2x1.0 x0.5 cubic meters and other basic advantages such as the relative easy way in aligning and manufacturing the mirrors. © 2012 SPIE.


Losurdo A.,GEOCART S.p.A. | Marzo C.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Guariglia A.,GEOCART S.p.A.
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2015

Change Detection techniques in SAR images is very relevant for the locationing and the monitoring of interesting land changes. At present, it is a very important topic due to the high repetitiveness and of the new SAR satellite instruments (e.g. COSMO-SkyMed and Sentinel-1). Geocart S.p.A. has reached important results about SAR change detection techniques within a technological project designed and implemented for the Italian Space Agency. The project's title is "Integrated Monitoring System: application to the GAS pipeline". The aim of the project is the development of a new remote sensing service integrating aerial and satellite data for GAS pipeline monitoring. An important Work-Package of the project aims to develop algorithms regarding the change detection to be applied on COSMO-SkyMed Stripmap Himage data in order to identify heavy lorries on pipelines. Particularly, the paper presents a new change detection technique based on a probabilistic approach and the corresponding applicative results.


Graziola G.,University of Bergamo | Sciortino G.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

A conceptual economic framework for different approaches to the evaluation of the benefits of space investments. In this part of the paper we shall appeal at general economic theory, and particularly, to welfare economics and its applied branch known as Cost-benefit analysis, to clarify the meaning of the great variety of benefits or spillovers or positive impact of investments in the space industry, and particularly in its upstream sector (manufacturing, launching and operating satellites). Our general idea is that why one can reasonably accept that the ultimate criterion of evaluation is the welfare or, in technical terms, the utility of the people, it is not generally clear that there are many ways through which space activities have an impact on that utility. Some ways are more direct than other and some ways can be effective under specific conditions (e.g., in the short rather than in long term). The mapping of a specific way requires setting up a theoretical model, i.e. a number of assumptions, from which the accuracy of the estimates of benefits will depend. Also the difficulties in data gathering force the policy maker or the researcher to accept models of estimation, which are approximations of the relevant theoretical models. We shall present the main approaches suggested by the economic literature of both partial and general equilibrium; and we shall illustrate the points made by them with example of benefits estimation from the real world. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation.


Duca E.,Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI | Duca E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Giaconi M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Parca G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata
2010 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2010 | Year: 2010

Modulation Instability (MI) is a nonlinear instable phenomenon arising in dispersive fiber optics under proper conditions. When a strong pump CW is injected a perturbation, initially negligible, undergoes amplification. In this paper we derive the instable regime theoretical conditions focusing on the pump depletion. This step is neglected in most of literature. Thus, we analyze MI effect as the interplay between a pump signal and a small perturbation propagating in anomalous dispersion regime. The pump depletion will lead, eventually, to the exhaustion of the nonlinear conditions. The CW power depletion is important for defining the optical gain offered by the fibre. In passing, the gain induced on small perturbation is measured, as well. © 2010 IEEE.

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