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Vadiraj A.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center | Balachandran G.,Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd. | Kamaraj M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Kazuya E.,Nagaoka University of Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

The effect of tempering temperature (100-600 °C) on the hardness and wear resistance of a series of quenched and tempered hypereutectic alloyed gray cast irons has been studied in this work. Hardness was observed decreases with increase in tempering temperature and this trend is influenced by alloying additions and the volume of graphite flakes. Hardness of alloyed gray irons is also influenced by solid solution strengthening of tempered ferrite and carbide content and their distribution. The wear loss of alloyed cast irons was found to be lowest at a tempering temperature of 100 °C and 400 °C. The optimum tempering temperature is 400 °C with moderate hardness and low wear rate. This has been attributed to strengthening of the matrix at this temperature. Beyond 400 °C, the wear rate increases significantly due to carbide coagulation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Amanulla B.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center | Chakrabarti S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Singh S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2012

A power distribution system reconfiguration methodology considering the reliability and the power loss is developed in this paper. Probabilistic reliability models are used in order to evaluate the reliability at the load points. An algorithm for finding the minimal cut sets is utilized to find the minimal set of components appearing between the feeder and any particular load point. The optimal status of the switches in order to maximize the reliability and minimize the real power loss is found by a binary particle swarm optimization-based search algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on a 33-bus and a 123-bus radial distribution system. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Balasubramanian B.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center
2015 IEEE International Transportation Electrification Conference, ITEC-India 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper describes the indigenous development of CAN based low-cost cluster controller which drives the non-CAN cluster in a CAN based vehicle. The use of CAN network in vehicle is ever growing and has number of advantages which includes efficient diagnostics, low-cost and reduced wiring harness. The use of CAN network in a module expects the other interconnected modules also to be CAN based. Typical example being development of EV or HEV requires the instrument cluster of the vehicle also to be CAN based, as its information mostly available in CAN (For example SOC of High voltage battery). The indigenously developed controller drives the non-CAN cluster dials based on the CAN message from vehicle control unit. The controller hardware is designed to be universal driver which can drive almost all instrument clusters. This controller also has reverse functionality that converts the physical signal from vehicle to CAN message. The advantages being low development and implementation cost, compatibility to all clusters with minor software changes, retainment of the existing cluster, cabin trims and avoids need for new cluster development which involves huge development cost. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Balasubramanian B.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center
2015 IEEE International Transportation Electrification Conference, ITEC-India 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper describes the implementation of sensor-less hill-assist control system in electric Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV). In manual transmission vehicles without hill-assist, the restart at the slope can be done through skilled clutch control. For the vehicles not having clutch (auto transmission or fixed gear electric vehicles), the restart of the vehicle at hill is not possible with driver skills alone and needs the hill-assist functionality. It involves the costlier sensors and control mechanism for its implementation [1, 2]. The work aimed at implementing hill-assist functionality without the use of gradient sensor and brake actuators. In the absence of brake actuators the holding torque is provided by the traction motor. The PID controller with parameterized vehicle model in loop calculates the holding torque required. The precise vehicle model for the controller built through vehicle tests. As the PID gains are sensitive to the hill slope and vehicle load, they are indirectly estimated through controlled rollback and precise model of the vehicle implemented in vehicle controller. The estimation slope helps to change the PID parameters online to reduce the speed error as quickly as possible. The modeling, simulation of the hill-assist algorithm is presented. The algorithm is embedded with the existing traction control module of the electric LCV. Test results of the hill-assist operation are presented on comparison with the simulation results. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Chatterjee S.,Ashok Leyland Technical Center
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In the recent years, due to rising fuel costs, transportation technologies that provide better fuel economy than conventional vehicle are gaining in popularity with masses. Also, tighter emission norms by various governments have prompted OEMs to look at alternate solutions such as hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles employ an internal combustion engine as well as an alternate energy source to power road vehicles. Various types of hybrid vehicles are available such as mild hybrid, full hybrid, series, parallel and series-parallel hybrids. The level of hybridization (mild or full) and the different powertrain combination (series or parallel) result that on the same route, the engine in a hybrid vehicle operates very different to that of conventional vehicle. The fuel consumed and emissions are also significantly lower in hybrid vehicle. To certify hybrid vehicles, regulators in many countries have modified existing procedures applicable to conventional vehicles. This paper gives an overview about the types of hybrid Powertrain combination. Indian procedure for certification of Heavy Duty Hybrid vehicles is explained. Other methods for emission testing being used worldwide are also presented here. © 2013 SAE International. Source

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