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North College Hill, OH, United States

Ashland University is a mid-sized, private, non-profit university in Ashland, Ohio, United States. The university consists of a 135-acre main campus and several off-campus centers throughout central and northern Ohio. It was founded in 1878 and is affiliated with the Brethren Church. Judeo-Christian values are the foundation of the educational and social environment of the university.Today, the university offers nearly 70 undergraduate majors and nine pre-professional programs. The majors include actuarial science, toxicology/environmental science and entrepreneurship, which are unusual for an institution of its size. In addition, it offers most traditional liberal arts majors as well as a wide range of majors in business and education. The education program, which offers pre-K through doctorate level courses, is one of the largest among independent and state institutions in Ohio. Academic programs are enhanced by an Honors Program and the John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs.The university consists of four Colleges—the College of Arts and science, the Schar College of Education, the Dauch College of Business and Economics, and the Schar College of Nursing—and a large Graduate School offering degree programs in Master of Business Administration , Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing , Master of American History and Government , Master of Arts in Health and Risk Communication, Master of Education and Doctor of Education programs. In addition, Ashland Theological Seminary, a division of Ashland University, offers a doctor of ministry degree as well as a number of master's degrees.In addition to the main campus in Ashland, the University operates centers in a variety of locations throughout the state, including Cleveland, Columbus, Elyria, Massillon, Mansfield, Medina and Westlake. Wikipedia.

Hyman P.,Ashland University | Atterbury R.,University of Nottingham | Barrow P.,University of Nottingham
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Bacteriophages are viruses of bacteria that are used for controlling bacterial food-borne pathogens and have been proposed for more extensive usage in infection control. Protists are now recognised to harbour viruses and virus-like particles. We propose that investigation of their prevalence in parasites be intensified. We also propose that such viruses might be considered for virotherapy to control certain parasite infections of man and animals. © 2013.

Barto E.K.,Free University of Berlin | Weidenhamer J.D.,Ashland University | Cipollini D.,Wright State University | Rillig M.C.,Free University of Berlin
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012

In many natural communities communication between plants and other organisms below ground drives community dynamics. This communication is primarily through the release and detection of infochemicals, which must traverse the soil matrix to be effective. In this opinion article, we propose the Network Enhanced Bioactive Zone (NEBaZ) model, which posits that common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) increase the bioactive zones of infochemicals by serving as superhighways directly connecting plants below ground. Here we argue that infochemical transport via CMNs allows for systemic defense signaling across plant populations and directed allelochemical delivery to target plants. Plant-animal interactions may also be facilitated by CMNs, suggesting that these fungal networks may be crucial components of many natural ecosystems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hansi M.,University of Helsinki | Weidenhamer J.D.,Ashland University | Sinkkonen A.,University of Helsinki | Sinkkonen A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

The density-dependence of terrestrial plant-plant interactions in the presence of toxins has previously been explored using biodegradable compounds. We exposed barley and lettuce to four copper concentrations at four stand densities. We hypothesized that toxin effects would decrease and Cu uptake would increase at increasing plant densities. We analyzed toxin effects by (a) comparing plant biomasses and (b) using a recent regression model that has a separate parameter for the interaction of resource competition and toxin interference. Plant response to Cu was density-dependent in both experiments. Total Cu uptake by barley increased and the dose per plant decreased as plant density increased. This study is the first to demonstrate that plant density mediates plant response to metals in soil in a predictable way. This highlights the need to explore the mechanisms for and consequences of these effects, and to integrate the use of several plant densities into standard ecotoxicological testing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sridhar K.,Ashland University | Bezawada R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Trivedi M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Marketing Science | Year: 2012

Consumer new product adoption and preference evolution or learning may be influenced by intrinsic or internal factors (e.g., usage experiences, personal characteristics), external influences (e.g., social effects, media), and marketing activities of the firm. Moreover, the preference evolution in a certain category can spill over to other categories; i.e., consumers can exhibit cross-category learning. In this paper, we develop a multicategory framework to analyze the role of the above elements in the formation and evolution of consumer preferences across categories. We analyze these elements by employing multiple data sets, i.e., by combining revealed preference data (from scanner panel), stated data (from surveys measuring consumer lifestyle variables and demographics), and external influences (e.g., media mentions) in a completely heterogeneous framework while considering other facets of the learning process. By jointly estimating the model for organic purchases in six distinct food categories, we also explore the role of category differences. Results show that consumer new product adoption and learning is indeed impacted significantly and to various degrees by the aforementioned factors. We show how, by selectively encouraging purchases under various scenarios, firms can accelerate the learning process, not only for the focal category but also for other categories, thereby realizing considerable incremental profits. These results can be used by both manufacturers and retailers for more efficient allocation of marketing budgets across (new) products. ©2012 INFORMS.

Weidenhamer J.D.,Ashland University | Callaway R.M.,University of Montana
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2010

Invasive plants have a multitude of impacts on plant communities through their direct and indirect effects on soil chemistry and ecosystem function. For example, plants modify the soil environment through root exudates that affect soil structure, and mobilize and/or chelate nutrients. The long-term impact of litter and root exudates can modify soil nutrient pools, and there is evidence that invasive plant species may alter nutrient cycles differently from native species. The effects of plants on ecosystem biogeochemistry may be caused by differences in leaf tissue nutrient stoichiometry or secondary metabolites, although evidence for the importance of allelochemicals in driving these processes is lacking. Some invasive species may gain a competitive advantage through the release of compounds or combinations of compounds that are unique to the invaded community-the "novel weapons hypothesis." Invasive plants also can exert profound impact on plant communities indirectly through the herbicides used to control them. Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, often is used to help control invasive weeds, and generally is considered to have minimal environmental impacts. Most studies show little to no effect of glyphosate and other herbicides on soil microbial communities. However, herbicide applications can reduce or promote rhizobium nodulation and mycorrhiza formation. Herbicide drift can affect the growth of non-target plants, and glyphosate and other herbicides can impact significantly the secondary chemistry of plants at sublethal doses. In summary, the literature indicates that invasive species can alter the biogeochemistry of ecosystems, that secondary metabolites released by invasive species may play important roles in soil chemistry as well as plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions, and that the herbicides used to control invasive species can impact plant chemistry and ecosystems in ways that have yet to be fully explored. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

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