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Wilmington, DE, United States

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Bouhadir K.H.,American University of Beirut | Abramian L.,American University of Beirut | Ezzeddine A.,American University of Beirut | Usher K.,West Chester University | Vladimirov N.,Ashland Research Center
Molecules | Year: 2012

We report herein the synthesis and characterization of 9-(2- diallylaminoethyl) adenine. We evaluated two different synthetic routes starting with adenine where the optimal route was achieved through coupling of 9-(2-chloroethyl)adenine with diallylamine. The cyclopolymerization and cyclo-copolymerization of 9-(2-diallylaminoethyl)adenine hydrochloride salt resulted in low molecular weight oligomers in low yields. In contrast, 9-(2-diallylaminoethyl)adenine failed to cyclopolymerize, however, it formed a copolymer with SO 2 in relatively good yields. The molecular weights of the cyclopolymers were around 1,700-6,000 g/mol, as estimated by SEC. The cyclo-copolymer was stable up to 226 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a free-radical cyclo-copolymerization of a neutral alkyldiallylamine derivative with SO 2. These polymers represent a novel class of carbocyclic polynucleotides. © 2012 by the authors.

Deng W.,University of Mississippi | Majumdar S.,University of Mississippi | Singh A.,University of Mississippi | Shah S.,University of Mississippi | And 6 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and to enhance the stability of a poorly water-soluble and low glass-trasition temperature (Tg) model drug, fenofibrate, in low molecular weight grades of hydroxypropylcellulose matrices produced by hot-melt extrusion (HME). Percent drug loading had a significant effect on the extrudability of the formulations. Dissolution rate of fenofibrate from melt extruded pellets was faster than that of the pure drug (p < 0.05). Incorporation of sugars within the formulation further increased the fenofibrate release rates. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that the crystalline drug was converted into an amorphous form during the HME process. Fenofibrate is prone to recrystallization due to its low Tg. Various polymers were evaluated as stabilizing agents among which polyvinylpyrrolidone 17PF and amino methacrylate copolymer exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on fenofibrate recrystallization in the hot-melt extrudates. Subsequently immediate-release fenofibrate tablets were successfully developed and complete drug release was achieved within 5 min. The dissolution profile was comparable to that of a currently marketed formulation. The hot-melt extruded fenofibrate tablets were stable, and exhibited an unchanged drug release profile after 3-month storage at 40°C/75% RH. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Cheng H.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gu Q.-M.,Ashland Research Center
Polymers | Year: 2012

Polysaccharides are used extensively in various industrial applications, such as food, adhesives, coatings, construction, paper, pharmaceuticals, and personal care. Many polysaccharide structures need to be modified in order to improve their end-use properties; this is mostly done through chemical reactions. In the past 20 years many enzyme-catalyzed modifications have been developed to supplement chemical derivatization methods. Typical reactions include enzymatic oxidation, ester formation, amidation, glycosylation, and molecular weight reduction. These reactions are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis placed on the work done by the authors. The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol). © 2012 by the authors.

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