Ashiya, Japan
Ashiya, Japan

Ashiya University is a private university in Ashiya, Hyōgo, Japan, founded in 1964. Wikipedia.

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Yui K.,Ashiya University | Yui K.,Dokkyo Medical University | Imataka G.,Dokkyo Medical University | Kawasaki Y.,University of Shizuoka
Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be attributed to altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids. We examined the relationships between the plasma ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA, and biomarkers of AA-related signaling mediators, i.e., ceruloplasmin, transferrin and superoxide dismutase, with the behavioral symptoms of 30 individuals with ASD (mean age, 13.0 years old) and 20 age- and gender-matched normal controls (mean age, 13.6 years old). Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). The ASD group had significantly higher plasma DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios, as well as ABC scores, compared to the control group. The plasma ceruloplasmin levels in the ASD group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that plasma DHA/AA ratio was a fitting model for distinguishing the ASD group from the control group. These findings suggested that increased plasma DHA/AA ratio may be related to lower plasma levels of ceruloplasmin, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of behavioral symptoms in 30 individuals with ASD. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Yui K.,Ashiya University | Yui K.,Dokkyo Medical University | Kawasaki Y.,University of Shizuoka | Yamada H.,University of Shizuoka | Ogawa S.,National Institute of Neuroscience
CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2016

The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unclear; however, the toxic environmental exposure to oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in its pathogenesis. A loss of balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity produces an excess of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are closely related to NO and NO synthase. In the pathophysiology of ASD, NO is related to the activity of primary PUFAs. NO modulates short- and long-term synaptic plasticity and plays essential roles in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes including neurotransmission. NO affects the function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the local cellular milieu, in which biological antioxidants are present. NO plays a double role in the organism showing both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects. Redox imbalance leads to the activation of the neurotoxic pathway, suggesting crossroads for the neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects of NO. Furthermore, the dual role of NO could depend on the adaptive functions of the antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress-related ROS/RNS as the disease progresses. Increased concentrations of arachidonic acid promote neuronal survival, and the dysregulation of the NO system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorders. Therefore, the NO system could provide useful drug targets for these diseases. NO and NO donors also show therapeutic potential for Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia with refractory symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Miyazaki Y.,Ashiya University | Nisimura T.,Nihon University | Numata H.,Kyoto University
Progress in Brain Research | Year: 2012

Although circannual rhythms controlling different physiological processes and various aspects of behavior have been reported in numerous organisms, our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms is still quite limited. We examined the mechanisms controlling the circannual pupation rhythm of the varied carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci. This rhythm is self-sustainable, exhibits temperature compensation of the periodicity, and is entrainable to environmental changes. In addition, the circannual phase response curves to a photoperiod pulse display Type 0 or Type 1 resetting, depending on the duration of the pulse. Thus, we infer that this rhythm is derived from a self-sustaining biological oscillator with a period of about a year, that is, a circannual clock, analogous to the circadian clock. Further, a circadian clock appears to mediate photoperiodic time measurement for phase resetting of the circannual clock. Based on these results and previous research performed in other organisms, we discuss the general characteristics of the physiological mechanisms underpinning circannual rhythmicity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yui K.,Ashiya University | Yui K.,Sawa Hospital | Koshiba M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Nakamura S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Kobayashi Y.,SRL Inc
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Algeo T.J.,University of Cincinnati | Hinnov L.,Johns Hopkins University | Moser J.,University of Cincinnati | Maynard J.B.,University of Cincinnati | And 3 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2010

The Gujo-Hachiman section in central Japan provides a rare window into environmental conditions within the Panthalassic Ocean, which encompassed more than half the Earth's surface at 251 Ma. The section is characterized by a sharp transition from green-gray organic-poor cherts to black siliceous shales in the uppermost Permian. Normalization to the clay fraction demonstrates that apparent increases in the concentrations of organic matter and trace metals above this transition were due primarily to the loss of a diluent biogenic (radiolarian) silica flux and only secondarily to a small shift toward more reducing bottom waters. In the black shale, pyrite abundance increases by a factor of ~30× and is dominated by framboidal grains of probable syngenetic origin. These observations suggest that the expansion of low-oxygen conditions within the Panthalassic Ocean was focused within the oxygen-minimum zone rather than at the seafloor. Such a pattern implies that (1) changes in nutrient fluxes and primary productivity rates, rather than stagnation of oceanic circulation, were a key factor influencing oceanic redox conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary, and (2) large regions of the Panthalassic Ocean underwent only limited redox changes, providing potential refugia for marine taxa that survived into the Triassic. © 2010 Geological Society of America.

Yui K.,Ashiya University | Imataka G.,Dokkyo Medical University | Kawasaki Y.,University of Shizuoka | Yamada H.,University of Shizuoka
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2016

Previous studies have indicated that the altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the relationship between the plasma fatty acid levels, expressed as μg/ml, and the plasma levels of biomarkers of AA-related signaling mediators, such as ceruloplasmin, transferrin and superoxide dismutase, and assessed the behavioral symptoms of 30 individuals with ASD (mean age, 13.6. ±. 4.3 years old) compared with 20 age- and gender-matched normal controls (mean age, 13.2. ±. 5.4 years old) using Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). The plasma levels of EPA and the plasma ratios of EPA/AA were significantly higher, while the plasma levels of AA and metabolites, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, adrenic acid, and ceruloplasmin (Cp), were significantly lower in the 30 individuals with ASD compared with the 20 normal controls. The ABC scores were significantly increased in the ASD group compared with those of the control group. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that reduced plasma levels of AA and metabolites in association with high plasma EPA/AA ratios might down-regulate AA-related signaling mediators, such as Cp. Subsequently, reduced plasma Cp levels might reduce the protective capacity for brain damage, resulting in the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral symptoms in individuals with ASD. These findings suggest that reduced plasma AA levels may downregulate Cp. © 2015.

Yui K.,Ashiya University | Sato A.,Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science | Sato A.,Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological HospitalTokyo | Imataka G.,Dokkyo Medical University
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Mitochondria are organelles that play a central role in processes related to cellular viability, such as energy production, cell growth, cell death via apoptosis, and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We can observe behavioral abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their recovery mediated by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse models. In Tsc2+/- mice, the transcription of multiple genes involved in mTOR signaling is enhanced, suggesting a crucial role of dysregulated mTOR signaling in the ASD model. This review proposes that the mTOR inhibitor may be useful for the pharmacological treatment of ASD. This review offers novel insights into mitochondrial dysfunction and the related impaired glutathione synthesis and lower detoxification capacity. Firstly, children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to manifest clinical symptoms similar to those of mitochondrial disorders, and it therefore shows that the clinical manifestations of ASD with a concomitant diagnosis of mitochondrial dysfunction are likely due to these mitochondrial disorders. Secondly, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production/oxygen consumption pathway may be a potential candidate for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, and disruption of ATP synthesis alone may be related to impaired glutathione synthesis. Finally, a decrease in total antioxidant capacity may account for ASD children who show core social and behavioral impairments without neurological and somatic symptoms. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Yui K.,Ashiya University
Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica | Year: 2012

It is important to note that risperidone solution, intranasal administration of oxytocin, and dietary supplementation with large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported to improve impaired social interaction. In addition, atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and SSRI fluvoxamine were useful in treating some aspects of social relatedness or the core deficits of communication and socialization. The evaluation of treatments for ASD should be directed at neurobiological targets known to be important in the brain's response to abnormal developmental trajectories or toward enhancing plasticity during the highly sensitive period in gene-environment interaction (epigenetic mechanism). Recent epidemiological studies have indicated that at least one in every 100 people has some form of ASD. Environmental chemicals can affect the development of the brain. Further studies will be required to address the effect of environmental chemicals.

Watari Y.,Ashiya University | Tanaka K.,Miyagi Gakuin Women's University
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2010

Daily light and temperature cycles entrain adult eclosion rhythms in many insect species, but little is known about their interaction. We studied this problem in the onion fly, Delia antiqua. Pupae were subjected to various combinations of a photoperiod of 12L:12D and thermoperiods. The thermoperiods consisted of 12. h warm phase (W) and 12. h cool phase (C), giving a mean temperature of 25°C with different temperature steps of 8, 4 and 1°C. As the phase relation of the two Zeitgebers was varied, the phase of eclosion rhythm was shifted, depending on the phase angle with the light cycle and the amplitude of the temperature cycle. When the temperature step in the thermoperiod was 8°C (WC 29:21°C), the eclosion rhythm was entrained mainly to thermoperiod rather than photoperiod. In the regime with a 4°C temperature step (WC 27:23°C), both thermoperiod and photoperiod affected eclosion rhythm, and a phase jump of the eclosion rhythm occurred when the warm phase of thermoperiod was delayed 15-18. h from light-on. In regimes with a 1°C temperature step (WC 25.5:24.5°C), the eclosion rhythm was completely entrained to photoperiod. The observed interacting effect of light and temperature cycle on the eclosion rhythm in D. antiqua can be explained by the two-oscillator model proposed by Pittendrigh and Bruce (1959). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Tanaka K.,Miyagi Gakuin Women's University | Watari Y.,Ashiya University
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2011

To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time (∅ E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, ∅ E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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