Yui K.,Ashiya University |
Yui K.,Sawa Hospital |
Koshiba M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
Nakamura S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
Kobayashi Y.,SRL Inc
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012
Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Algeo T.J.,University of Cincinnati |
Hinnov L.,Johns Hopkins University |
Moser J.,University of Cincinnati |
Maynard J.B.,University of Cincinnati |
And 3 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2010
The Gujo-Hachiman section in central Japan provides a rare window into environmental conditions within the Panthalassic Ocean, which encompassed more than half the Earth's surface at 251 Ma. The section is characterized by a sharp transition from green-gray organic-poor cherts to black siliceous shales in the uppermost Permian. Normalization to the clay fraction demonstrates that apparent increases in the concentrations of organic matter and trace metals above this transition were due primarily to the loss of a diluent biogenic (radiolarian) silica flux and only secondarily to a small shift toward more reducing bottom waters. In the black shale, pyrite abundance increases by a factor of ~30× and is dominated by framboidal grains of probable syngenetic origin. These observations suggest that the expansion of low-oxygen conditions within the Panthalassic Ocean was focused within the oxygen-minimum zone rather than at the seafloor. Such a pattern implies that (1) changes in nutrient fluxes and primary productivity rates, rather than stagnation of oceanic circulation, were a key factor influencing oceanic redox conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary, and (2) large regions of the Panthalassic Ocean underwent only limited redox changes, providing potential refugia for marine taxa that survived into the Triassic. © 2010 Geological Society of America.
Sano H.,Kyushu University |
Kuwahara K.,Ashiya University |
Yao A.,Osaka City University |
Agematsu S.,University of Tsukuba
Paleontological Research | Year: 2010
We describe the lithology and age of an intact section (NF 1212R) and two reference sections of Panthalassan seamount-associated Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) siliceous rocks. The sections occupy the upper part of the Hashikadani Formation of the Mino terrane in the Mt. Funabuseyama area, central Japan. Section NF 1212R comprises a lower unit of gray chert (ca. 1.7 m thick), a middle unit of dark gray to black chert (ca. 0.8 m) with a pyrite-rich layer at the top (ca. 0.1 m), and an upper unit of black claystone with thin, intermittent beds of black to dark gray chert (ca. 1.2 m), in ascending order. The chert of the lower and middle units is rich in radiolarian remains with minor siliceous sponge spicules. The black chert of the middle unit is carbonaceous and includes tiny pyrite grains. The black claystone consists of microcrystalline quartz and clay minerals rich in carbonaceous matter. The chert of the upper unit is also carbonaceous and rich in radiolarian remains. The lower and middle units are correlated with the Neoalbaillella optima Zone (Changhsingian). The basal part of the upper unit is referable to the Hindeodus parvus Zone (basal Griesbachian), and the major part of the upper unit is possibly correlated with the middle to upper Dienerian. We position the PTB at the sharp lithologic boundary between the upper Upper Permian chert and lower Lower Triassic black claystone. The examined PTB siliceous rocks are stratigraphically attributed to the upper part of the Hashikadani Formation, reconstructed as an oceanic rock unit characterized by Lower Permian to Lower Triassic siliceous rocks that accumulated upon the lower flank of a mid-oceanic seamount in a pelagic realm of the Panthalassa Ocean. Our results present the world's first record of deep-marine PTB siliceous rocks associated with a Panthalassan seamount. © by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.
Yui K.,Ashiya University |
Imataka G.,Dokkyo Medical University |
Kawasaki Y.,University of Shizuoka |
Yamada H.,University of Shizuoka
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2016
Previous studies have indicated that the altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the relationship between the plasma fatty acid levels, expressed as μg/ml, and the plasma levels of biomarkers of AA-related signaling mediators, such as ceruloplasmin, transferrin and superoxide dismutase, and assessed the behavioral symptoms of 30 individuals with ASD (mean age, 13.6. ±. 4.3 years old) compared with 20 age- and gender-matched normal controls (mean age, 13.2. ±. 5.4 years old) using Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). The plasma levels of EPA and the plasma ratios of EPA/AA were significantly higher, while the plasma levels of AA and metabolites, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, adrenic acid, and ceruloplasmin (Cp), were significantly lower in the 30 individuals with ASD compared with the 20 normal controls. The ABC scores were significantly increased in the ASD group compared with those of the control group. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that reduced plasma levels of AA and metabolites in association with high plasma EPA/AA ratios might down-regulate AA-related signaling mediators, such as Cp. Subsequently, reduced plasma Cp levels might reduce the protective capacity for brain damage, resulting in the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral symptoms in individuals with ASD. These findings suggest that reduced plasma AA levels may downregulate Cp. © 2015.
Yui K.,Ashiya University |
Sato A.,Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science |
Sato A.,Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological HospitalTokyo |
Imataka G.,Dokkyo Medical University
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015
Mitochondria are organelles that play a central role in processes related to cellular viability, such as energy production, cell growth, cell death via apoptosis, and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We can observe behavioral abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their recovery mediated by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse models. In Tsc2+/- mice, the transcription of multiple genes involved in mTOR signaling is enhanced, suggesting a crucial role of dysregulated mTOR signaling in the ASD model. This review proposes that the mTOR inhibitor may be useful for the pharmacological treatment of ASD. This review offers novel insights into mitochondrial dysfunction and the related impaired glutathione synthesis and lower detoxification capacity. Firstly, children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to manifest clinical symptoms similar to those of mitochondrial disorders, and it therefore shows that the clinical manifestations of ASD with a concomitant diagnosis of mitochondrial dysfunction are likely due to these mitochondrial disorders. Secondly, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production/oxygen consumption pathway may be a potential candidate for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, and disruption of ATP synthesis alone may be related to impaired glutathione synthesis. Finally, a decrease in total antioxidant capacity may account for ASD children who show core social and behavioral impairments without neurological and somatic symptoms. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.
Harano K.-I.,National Institute of Agro biological science at Ohwashi |
Tanaka S.,National Institute of Agro biological science at Ohwashi |
Watari Y.,Ashiya University |
Saito O.,Ashiya University
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012
This study examined the effects of parental and progeny rearing density on locomotor activity of 1st-stadium nymphs of the desert locust, . Schistocerca gregaria, using an actograph. Progeny obtained from solitarious (isolated-reared) or gregarious (crowd-reared) locusts were reared in isolation or in a group of 30 nymphs. Crowding after hatching had a slight influence on mean activity shortly after the start of measurements, but no clear effect was detected until day 2, when maximum activity during the 6-24. h of observation was significantly higher than that of the nymphs kept in isolation. On the other hand, the effects of parental rearing density on locomotor activity manifested at all ages examined (0-2. days old). Progeny of gregarious locusts showed consistently higher activity than those of solitarious locusts. In newly hatched nymphs, the effect of parental rearing density was explained by variation in body size at hatching, one of the phase-dependent characteristics. Hatchling body color was also correlated with locomotor activity and body weight. Similar levels of locomotor activity were exhibited when green, solitarious and black, gregarious nymphs were similar in body weight. These results suggested that parental rearing density indirectly influences locomotor activity in the progeny shortly after hatching by affecting their body size as eggs or hatchlings. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Yui K.,Ashiya University
Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica | Year: 2012
It is important to note that risperidone solution, intranasal administration of oxytocin, and dietary supplementation with large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported to improve impaired social interaction. In addition, atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and SSRI fluvoxamine were useful in treating some aspects of social relatedness or the core deficits of communication and socialization. The evaluation of treatments for ASD should be directed at neurobiological targets known to be important in the brain's response to abnormal developmental trajectories or toward enhancing plasticity during the highly sensitive period in gene-environment interaction (epigenetic mechanism). Recent epidemiological studies have indicated that at least one in every 100 people has some form of ASD. Environmental chemicals can affect the development of the brain. Further studies will be required to address the effect of environmental chemicals.
Watari Y.,Ashiya University |
Tanaka K.,Miyagi Gakuin Women's University
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2010
Daily light and temperature cycles entrain adult eclosion rhythms in many insect species, but little is known about their interaction. We studied this problem in the onion fly, Delia antiqua. Pupae were subjected to various combinations of a photoperiod of 12L:12D and thermoperiods. The thermoperiods consisted of 12. h warm phase (W) and 12. h cool phase (C), giving a mean temperature of 25°C with different temperature steps of 8, 4 and 1°C. As the phase relation of the two Zeitgebers was varied, the phase of eclosion rhythm was shifted, depending on the phase angle with the light cycle and the amplitude of the temperature cycle. When the temperature step in the thermoperiod was 8°C (WC 29:21°C), the eclosion rhythm was entrained mainly to thermoperiod rather than photoperiod. In the regime with a 4°C temperature step (WC 27:23°C), both thermoperiod and photoperiod affected eclosion rhythm, and a phase jump of the eclosion rhythm occurred when the warm phase of thermoperiod was delayed 15-18. h from light-on. In regimes with a 1°C temperature step (WC 25.5:24.5°C), the eclosion rhythm was completely entrained to photoperiod. The observed interacting effect of light and temperature cycle on the eclosion rhythm in D. antiqua can be explained by the two-oscillator model proposed by Pittendrigh and Bruce (1959). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Tanaka K.,Miyagi Gakuin Women's University |
Watari Y.,Ashiya University
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2011
To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time (∅ E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, ∅ E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Tanaka K.,Miyagi Gakuin Women's University |
Kimura Y.,Agriculture Research Institute |
Watari Y.,Ashiya University
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2013
Adult eclosion rhythm of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, pupating in the soil, was recorded in darkness under two thermoperiods, 24°C (12 h):16°C (12 h) and 20.5°C (12 h):19.5°C (12 h), with different amplitude and the same average temperature. Clear daily rhythms of eclosion were observed in both conditions. However, moths eclosed about 2 h before the temperature drop in 20.5°C:19.5°C, but 4 h later in 24°C:16°C. This response to the amplitude of temperature cycle, together with similar previous observations of adult eclosion rhythms in dipterous insects, might suggest a widespread means of adaptation among insects pupating in the soil to compensate for the depth-dependent phase delay of the temperature cycle, which is the only time cue available in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis.