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Lesage E.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Apps M.A.J.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Hayter A.L.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Beckmann C.F.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
Behavioural Neurology | Year: 2010

Recent research has characterized the anatomical connectivity of the cortico-cerebellar system - a large and important fibre system in the primate brain. Within this system, there are reciprocal projections between the prefrontal cortex and Crus II of the cerebellar cortex, which both play important roles in the acquisition and execution of cognitive skills. Here, we propose that this system also plays a particular role in sustaining skilled cognitive performance in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), in whom advancing neuropathology causes increasingly inefficient information processing. We scanned RRMS patients and closely matched healthy subjects while they performed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), a demanding test of information processing speed, and a control task. This enabled us to localize differences between conditions that change as a function of group (group-by-condition interactions). Hemodynamic activity in some patient populations with CNS pathology are not well understood and may be atypical, so we avoided analysis strategies that rely exclusively on models of hemodynamic activity derived from the healthy brain, using instead an approach that combined a 'model-free' analysis technique (Tensor Independent Component Analysis, TICA) that was relatively free of such assumptions, with a post-hoc 'model-based' approach (General Linear Model, GLM). Our results showed group-by-condition interactions in cerebellar cortical Crus II. We suggest that this area may have in role maintaining performance in working memory tasks by compensating for inefficient data transfer associated with white matter lesions in MS. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Hudelist G.,Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Clinic | Hudelist G.,University of Surrey | Ballard K.,University of Surrey | English J.,Worthing and Southlands Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Objective The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of clinical vaginal examination with that of transvaginal sonography (TVS) in the presurgical diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Methods One-hundred and fifty-five women with symptoms suggestive of endometriosis were included. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and were prospectively and independently assessed by vaginal examination and TVS prior to a diagnostic laparoscopy and, where appropriate, radical resection and histological confirmation of endometriosis was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for each test method. Results In total, 83 (64%) women had histological confirmation of endometriosis, 52 (40%) of whom had deep infiltrating endometriosis. The prevalence of endometriosis on the uterosacral ligaments, pouch of Douglas, vagina, bladder, rectovaginal space and rectosigmoid was 23.3%, 16.3%, 8.5%, 3.1%, 6.9% and 24%. PPV, NPV, LR+ and LR- for vaginal examination were 92%, 87%, 41.56 and 0.60 for ovarian endometriosis; 43%, 84%, 2.48 and 0.63 for uterosacral ligament disease; 64%, 95%, 9.14 and 0.26 for involvement of the pouch of Douglas; 80%, 97%, 42.91 and 0.28 for vaginal endometriosis; 78%, 98%, 46.67 and 0.23 for endometriosis of the rectovaginal space; 100%, 98%, 75.60 and 0.75 for bladder involvement; 86%, 84%, 18.97 and 0.63 for rectosigmoidal endometriosis. Values for TVS were similar with regard to vaginal and rectovaginal space endometriosis, but were clearly superior to vaginal examination in cases of ovarian (87%, 99%, 24.56 and 0.04), uterosacral ligament (91%, 90%, 31.35 and 0.37) and rectosigmoidal (97%, 97%, 88.51 and 0.1) endometriosis. Conclusions TVS is a more useful test than is vaginal examination in detecting endometriosis in the ovaries and rectosigmoid. © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Silberbauer J.,Eastbourne General Hospital | Arya A.,Eastbourne General Hospital | Veasey R.A.,Eastbourne General Hospital | Boodhoo L.,Eastbourne General Hospital | And 7 more authors.
PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology | Year: 2010

Introduction: Accurate atrial arrhythmia discrimination is important for dual chamber pacemakers and defibrillators. The aim was to assess the accuracy of atrial arrhythmia recording using modern devices and relate this to atrial tip-to-ring (TTR) distance. Methods: One hundred eighty-two patients (72 ± 9 years, 55% male) with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were enrolled and were included in the study if they had an atrial fibrillation (AF) burden of 1-50% during a monitoring phase. Seventy-nine patients fulfilled these criteria and were followed for at least 5 months. Electrodes were classified as having short (<10 mm), medium (10-12), or long (13-18) atrial TTR spacing. Results: Two thousand eight hundred eighty-three detailed onset reports were analyzed; 730 (25%) demonstrated aberrant sensing. Six percent were due to farfield R wave oversensing (FFRWO) and 19% due to undersensing, sometimes occurring in the same patient and study phase. FFRWO was significantly reduced with short TTR electrodes (P < 0.05). Undersensing due to sensitivity fallout was 18% (short), 24% (medium), and 17% (long) (P = ns). Undersensing due to pacemaker blanking was 11% (short), 11% (medium), and 12% (long) (P = ns). Active fixation electrodes did not show any difference from passive fixation. Conclusion: Atrial electrodes with a short TTR (<10 mm) significantly reduce FFRWO without increasing undersensing and should be used routinely in patients with paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias. However, 20% of atrial tachyarrythmia episodes were incorrectly classified as terminated by these modern devices due to undersensing. Clinicians should be wary of using device-derived endpoints that rely on AF episode number or duration as these may be falsely increased or reduced, respectively. (PACE 2010; 85-93) © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lisk R.,Ashford and St Peters Hospital | Yeong K.,Ashford and St Peters Hospital | Nasim A.,Ashford and St Peters Hospital | Baxter M.,Ashford and St Peters Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2012

Nursing home residents are often very dependent, very frail and have complex care needs. Effective partnerships between primary and secondary care will be of benefit to these residents. We looked at 1954 admission episodes to our Trust from April 2006 to March 2009 inclusive. 3 nursing homes had the highest number of multiple admissions (≥4). Four strategies to reduce hospital admissions were used at these nursing homes for 3 months. An alert was also sent to the geriatrician if one of the residents was admitted so that their discharge from hospital could be expedited. The project was then extended for another 4 months with 6 nursing homes. The results showed that geriatrician input into nursing homes had a significant impact on admissions from nursing homes (χ2(2)=6.261, p<0.05). The second part of the project also showed significant impact on admissions (χ2(2)=12.552, p<0.05). Furthermore, in both parts of the project the length of stay in hospital for the residents was reduced. Geriatricians working together with co-ordinated multidisciplinary teams are well placed to manage the care needs of frail, elderly care home residents. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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