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Iyori K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Hisatsune J.,Hiroshima University | Kawakami T.,Gifu University | Shibata S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 9 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2010

Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are involved in some cutaneous infections in mammals by targeting desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule. Recently, an exfoliative toxin gene (exi) was identified in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from canine pyoderma. The aim of this study was to identify novel exfoliative toxin genes in S. pseudintermedius. Here, we describe a novel orf in the genome of S. pseudintermedius isolated from canine impetigo, whose deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to that of the SHETB exfoliative toxin from Staphylococcus hyicus (70.4%). The ORF recombinant protein caused skin exfoliation and abolished cell surface staining of Dsg1 in canine skin. Moreover, the ORF protein degraded the recombinant extracellular domains of canine Dsg1, but not Dsg3, in vitro. PCR analysis revealed that the orf was present in 23.2% (23/99) of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with superficial pyoderma exhibiting various clinical phenotypes, while the occurrence in S. pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs was 6.1% (3/49). In summary, this newly found orf in S. pseudintermedius encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, which targets a cell-cell adhesion molecule in canine epidermis and might be involved in a broad spectrum of canine pyoderma. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Terada Y.,ASC Dermatology Service | Nagata M.,ASC Dermatology Service | Murayama N.,ASC Dermatology Service | Nanko H.,Tokyo Koseinenkin Hospital | Furue M.,Kyushu University
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease encountered in both humans and dogs. Canine AD can be used in the analysis of naturally occurring AD; however, details of clinical comparison have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare those clinical features using the human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009). Fifty-one dogs with canine AD were evaluated by the human criteria. Prior to this study, canine AD was basically diagnosed by the fulfillment of two authentic canine AD criteria and a positive reaction against Dermatophagoides farinae in serum immunoglobulin E levels and/or in intradermal tests. Among the human AD criteria items, behavior corresponding to pruritus was observed in all 51 dogs. Skin lesions corresponding to eczematous dermatitis were seen in 50 dogs, and symmetrical distribution of skin lesions was noted in all 51 dogs. A chronic or chronically relapsing course was observed in 50 dogs. Based on these results, the concordance rate for the criteria was 96% (49/51). Differential diagnoses of AD were also investigated in the same manner. The concordance rate for the criteria was 0% (0/69) in scabies, 2% (1/50) in pyoderma, 0% (0/50) in demodicosis, 0% (0/9) in cutaneous lymphoma, 0% (0/2) in ichthyosis, 25% (2/7) in flea allergy, 48% (24/50) in seborrheic dermatitis and 75% (3/4) in food allergy. Canine AD is thus indicated as a valuable counterpart to human AD in clinical aspects. In addition, the human AD criteria could be applicable, with some modification, as provisional diagnostic criteria for canine AD. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

PubMed | ASC Dermatology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary dermatology | Year: 2011

The dose of 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan() Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA, USA) for canine superficial pyoderma was evaluated. The first trial compared three doses (group 1, 57 mL/m(2) body surface area; group 2, 29 mL/m(2) body surface area; and group 3, 19 mL/m(2) body surface area) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled fashion. Twenty-seven dogs with superficial pyoderma were treated with 2CA at the allocated doses every 2 days for 1 week. The owners and investigators subjectively evaluated the dogs, and investigators scored skin lesions, including erythema, papules/pustules, alopecia and scales, on a 0-4 scale. There were no significant differences in response between the treatment groups. The second trial established a practical dose-measuring method for 2CA. Sixty-eight owners were asked to apply 2CA on their palm in an amount corresponding to a Japanese 500 coin, 26.5 mm in diameter. This yielded an average dose of 0.900.40 mL. Mathematically, the doses used in groups 1, 2 and 3 can be represented as one coin per approximately one-, two- and three-hand-sized lesions, respectively. The results therefore suggest that owners instructed to apply one coin of the product per two-hand-sized areas of superficial pyoderma would use the range of doses evaluated in this trial.

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