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Singh H.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Karthikeyan J.,ASB Industries Inc.
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2013

Cold spray is one of the various names for describing an all-solid-state coating process that uses a high-speed gas jet to accelerate powder particles toward a substrate where they plastically deform and consolidate upon impact. Traditional thermal spray coating technologies require the melting or partial melting of feedstock material, and then quenching the molten droplets to produce coating. Cold spray technology belongs to the wide family of thermal spray technology and is a future of deposition of coating especially on temperature sensitive materials. In this paper the historical background of the cold spray process, fundamentals of this process and influence of the process parameters on coating properties are summarized. The main motivation for this review is to summarize the rapidly expanding common knowledge on cold spray for the researchers and engineers already or soon to be involved for their future endeavors with this new technology. © The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2013.


Kalsi S.S.,Punjab Technical University | Singh H.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Karthikeyan J.,ASB Industries Inc.
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2014

In the present research work, efforts are made to study the performance of the uncoated and cold spray NiCrAlY-coated superalloy in medical waste incinerator environment. The study was conducted in the secondary chamber of medical waste incinerator. The high-temperature performance of uncoated and coated superalloy was assessed by measuring the penetration of corrosion species and drop off scale thickness. The development of Al2O3 in the top oxide scale and dense structure of the coating is found to be responsible for the better performance of coated superalloy against erosion–corrosion. Cold spray NiCrAlY-coated heat exchanger tubes were estimated to have degradation rate about 35 mils/year. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Singh H.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Karthikeyan J.,ASB Industries Inc.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2015

Hot corrosion failure of components in power plant industry, like waste incinerators and WTE plants, is still a serious issue. The chlorine present in the plant environment acts as a catalyst and thereby, accelerates the corrosion reactions through the 'Active oxidation' phenomenon, which consists of chloridation, evaporation and re-oxidation. In this study, efforts were made to study the hot corrosive behavior of 80%Ni-20%Cr coating in the real service medical waste incinerator environment at 900. °C. The coating was deposited on a superalloy substrate by cold spraying. The coating performance has been characterized using the combined techniques of XRD, SEM/EDX and elemental X-ray analysis. The chlorine based incinerator environment is found to be so aggressive that corrosive species are able to penetrate through the uncoated superalloy. However, the cold sprayed coating is able to protect the superalloy from the highly corrosive degrading species present in this environment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Bernhardt A.,Stanford University | Bernhardt A.,University of Potsdam | Stright L.,Stanford University | Stright L.,ASB Industries Inc. | Lowe D.R.,Stanford University
Sedimentology | Year: 2012

Deposits of submarine debris flows can build up substantial topography on the sea floor. The resulting sea floor morphology can strongly influence the pathways of and deposition from subsequent turbidity currents. Map views of sea floor morphology are available for parts of the modern sea floor and from high-resolution seismic-reflection data. However, these data sets usually lack lithological information. In contrast, outcrops provide cross-sectional and lateral stratigraphic details of deep-water strata with superb lithological control but provide little information on sea floor morphology. Here, a methodology is presented that extracts fundamental lithological information from sediment core and well logs with a novel calibration between core, well-logs and seismic attributes within a large submarine axial channel belt in the Tertiary Molasse foreland basin, Austria. This channel belt was the course of multiple debris-flow and turbidity current events, and the fill consists of interbedded layers deposited by both of these processes. Using the core-well-seismic calibration, three-dimensional lithofacies proportion volumes were created. These volumes enable the interpretation of the three-dimensional distribution of the important lithofacies and thus the investigation of sea floor morphology produced by debris-flow events and its impact on succeeding turbidite deposition. These results show that the distribution of debris-flow deposits follows a relatively regular pattern of levées and lobes. When subsequent high-density turbidity currents encountered this mounded debris-flow topography, they slowed and deposited a portion of their sandy high-density loads just upstream of morphological highs. Understanding the depositional patterns of debris flows is key to understanding and predicting the location and character of associated sandstone accumulations. This detailed model of the filling style and the resulting stratigraphic architecture of a debris-flow dominated deep-marine depositional system can be used as an analogue for similar modern and ancient systems. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 International Association of Sedimentologists.


Al-Omari A.,Security Forces Hospital | Cameron D.W.,The Ottawa Hospital | Cameron D.W.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Cameron D.W.,University of Ottawa | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: The role of oral antibiotic therapy in treating infective endocarditis (IE) is not well established.Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for studies in which oral antibiotic therapy was used for the treatment of IE.Results: Seven observational studies evaluating the use oral beta-lactams (five), oral ciprofloxacin in combination with rifampin (one), and linezolid (one) for the treatment of IE caused by susceptible bacteria reported cure rates between 77% and 100%. Two other observational studies using aureomycin or sulfonamide, however, had failure rates >75%. One clinical trial comparing oral amoxicillin versus intravenous ceftriaxone for streptococcal IE reported 100% cure in both arms but its reporting had serious methodological limitations. One small clinical trial (n = 85) comparing oral ciprofloxacin and rifampin versus conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated right-sided S. aureus IE in intravenous drug users (IVDUs) reported cure rates of 89% and 90% in each arm, respectively (P =0.9); however, drug toxicities were more common in the latter group (62% versus 3%; P <0.01). Major limitations of this trial were lack of allocation concealment and blinding at the delivery of the study drug(s) and assessment of outcomes.Conclusion: Reported cure rates for IE treated with oral antibiotic regimens vary widely. The use of oral ciprofloxacin in combination with rifampin for uncomplicated right-sided S. aureus IE in IVDUs is supported by one small clinical trial of relatively good quality and could be considered when conventional IV antibiotic therapy is not possible. © 2014 Al-Omari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Lahiri D.,Florida International University | Gill P.K.,Florida International University | Scudino S.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Zhang C.,Florida International University | And 5 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

Al-based glassy coatings were synthesized using cold spraying technique to protect 6061 aluminum surface from wear and corrosion. Gas atomized Al90.05Y4.4Ni4.3Co0.9Sc0.35 (at.%) powder was used as the starting powder. Dense (98%) coatings with a uniform thickness of ~250μm were deposited. The coatings retained the glassy structure of the powder with few nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous matrix. Ball-on-disk wear of the coatings showed 600% improvement in the wear resistance as compared to 6061Al substrate. Potentiodynamic studies of the coatings in varying NaCl concentrations displayed 5 times better corrosion resistance than 6061 Al substrate, which was attributed to the active passivation and the chemical homogeneity of the coatings.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bala N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Karthikeyan J.,ASB Industries Inc.
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2012

High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment. © 2011 ASM International.


Einarsson J.I.,ASB Industries Inc.
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Objective: In a 3-year period, the main mode of access for hysterectomy at Brigham and Women's Hospital changed from abdominal to laparoscopic. We estimated potential effects of this shift on perioperative outcomes and costs. Methods:We compared the perioperative outcomes and the cost of care for all hysterectomies performed in 2006 and 2009 at an urban academic tertiary care center using the χ test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and two-sided Student's t test for continuous variables. A multivariate regression analysis was also performed for the major perioperative outcomes across the study groups. Cost data were gathered from the hospital's billing system; the remainder of data was extracted from patients' medical records. Rssults: This retrospective study included 2,133 patients. The total number of hysterectomies performed remained stable (1,054 procedures in 2006 compared with 1,079 in 2009) but the relative proportions of abdominal and laparoscopic cases changed markedly during the 3-year period (64.7% to 35.8% for abdominal, P<.001; and 17.7% to 46% for laparoscopic cases, P<.001). The overall rate of intraoperative complications and minor postoperative complications decreased significantly (7.2% to 4%, P<.002; and 18% to 5.7%, P<.001, respectively). Operative costs increased significantly for all procedures aside from robotic hysterectomy, although no significant change was noted in total mean costs. CONCLUSION:: A change from majority abdominal hysterectomy to minimally invasive hysterectomy was accompanied by a significant decrease in procedure-related complications without an increase in total mean costs. © 2011 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.


Kay C.M.,ASB Industries Inc.
Advanced Materials and Processes | Year: 2013

Product quality, maintenance costs, and production requirements drive engineering improvements where surfacing technologies play an important role in steel production. Areas of concern during steel manufacturing include heat, corrosion, and wear. To enhance equipment life, a number of thermal spray coatings are being used. Friction, grip, and long-wearing surfaces allow proper strip tension from the initial weld joining to final trimming and wrapping. Rolls with HVOF-applied carbide coatings have harder surfaces than strip materials. Optimized surface profiles and high friction coefficients support gripping of strips to rolls without harming the strip s surface finish properties. The most commonly used zinc baths consist of galvanized zinc with minor concentrations of aluminum. Coatings use tungsten carbide/cobalt powders applied via HVOF or detonation gun technology. Success of these coatings depends on the spray parameters, powder manufacturing method, and sealant system. The key to increased life is to reduce the amount of free cobalt in the coating.


The invention relates to an improved design for a spray gun and application system for cold gas dynamic spraying. The gun includes a rear housing comprising a powder inlet and a gas inlet, a front housing removably affixed to the rear housing and comprising an mixing cavity therein for mixing of the powder and gas and an exit therefrom, a nozzle holder having a bore disposed therethrough and removably affixed to the front housing, and a polymeric nozzle positioned within the nozzle holder, an interior taper of the nozzle holder bore complementing an exterior taper of the nozzle. The nozzle having an initially converging, subsequently diverging centrally disposed bore therein adapted to receive the mixed powder and gas from the mixing chamber and the nozzle holder including a cooling jacket which is thermally coupled to the nozzle adjacent the nozzle inlet and mechanically coupled downstream of the nozzle inlet.

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