Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2016
Clinicians often experience the reduced efficacy of general and local anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs in habitual drinkers and chronic alcoholics. However, the mechanistic background underlying such anesthetic tolerance remains unclear. Biogenic indoleamines condense with alcohol-derived aldehydes during fermentation processes and under physiological conditions to produce neuro-active tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines, many of which are contained not only in various alcoholic beverages but also in human tissues and body fluids. These indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products are increased in the human body because of their exogenous and endogenous supply enhanced by alcoholic beverage consumption. Since tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines target receptors, ion channels and neuronal membranes which are common to anesthetic agents, we propose a hypothesis that they may pharmacodynamically interact at GABAA receptors, NMDA receptors, voltage-gated Na+ channels and membrane lipid bilayers to attenuate anesthetics-induced positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulation, NMDA receptor antagonism, ion channel blockade and neuronal membrane modification, thereby affecting anesthetic efficacy. The condensation products may also cooperatively interact with ethanol that induces adaptive changes and cross-tolerance to anesthetics and with dopamine-aldehyde adducts that act on GABAA receptors and membrane lipids. Because tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines are metabolized to lose or decrease their neuro-activities, induction of the relevant enzymes by habitual drinking could produce an inter-individual difference of drinkers in susceptibility to anesthetic agents. The present hypothesis would also provide a unified framework for different modes of anesthetic action, which are inhibited by neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Okamoto H.,Asahi University
Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion | Year: 2010
A study was to investigate the cobalt-niobium (Co-Nb) phase diagram. The Co-Nb phase diagram was calculated by taking into account the latest data. This phase diagram was expanded to higher and lower temperatures following the trend shown in another phase diagram. An interesting feature of this phase diagram was that Co 2Nb existed in three forms side by side. αCo 2Nb and βCo 2Nb were shown as line compounds and named Co 3Nb and Co 16Nb 9 in the diagram.
Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University
Molecules | Year: 2015
In addition to interacting with functional proteins such as receptors, ion channels, and enzymes, a variety of drugs mechanistically act on membrane lipids to change the physicochemical properties of biomembranes as reported for anesthetic, adrenergic, cholinergic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, and antioxidant drugs. As well as these membrane-acting drugs, bioactive plant components, phytochemicals, with amphiphilic or hydrophobic structures, are presumed to interact with biological membranes and biomimetic membranes prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol, resulting in the modification of membrane fluidity, microviscosity, order, elasticity, and permeability with the potencies being consistent with their pharmacological effects. A novel mechanistic point of view of phytochemicals would lead to a better understanding of their bioactivities, an insight into their medicinal benefits, and a strategic implication for discovering drug leads from plants. This article reviews the membrane interactions of different classes of phytochemicals by highlighting their induced changes in membrane property. The phytochemicals to be reviewed include membrane-interactive flavonoids, terpenoids, stilbenoids, capsaicinoids, phloroglucinols, naphthodianthrones, organosulfur compounds, alkaloids, anthraquinonoids, ginsenosides, pentacyclic triterpene acids, and curcuminoids. The membrane interaction's applicability to the discovery of phytochemical drug leads is also discussed while referring to previous screening and isolating studies. © 2015 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Characteristic interactivity of landiolol, an ultra-short-acting highly selective β1-blocker, with biomimetic membranes: Comparisons with β1-selective esmolol and non-selective propranolol and alprenolol
Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University |
Mizogami M.,University of Fukui
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2013
Although β1-blockers have been perioperatively used to reduce the cardiac disorders associated with general anesthesia, little is known about the mechanistic characteristics of ultra-short-acting highly selective β1-blocker landiolol. We studied its membrane-interacting property in comparison with other selective and non-selective β1-blockers. Biomimetic membranes prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol of varying compositions were treated with β1-selective landiolol and esmolol and non-selective propranolol and alprenolol at 0.5-200 μM. The membrane interactivity and the antioxidant activity were determined by measuring fluorescence polarization and by peroxidizing membrane lipids with peroxynitrite, respectively. Non-selective β1-blockers, but not selective ones, intensively acted on 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomal membranes and cardiomyocyte-mimetic membranes to increase the membrane fluidity. Landiolol and its inactive metabolite distinctively decreased the fluidity of DPPC liposomal membranes, suggesting that a membrane-rigidifying effect is attributed to the morpholine moiety in landiolol structure but unlikely to clinically contribute to the β1-blocking effect of landiolol. Propranolol and alprenolol interacted with lipid raft model membranes, whereas neither landiolol nor esmolol. All drugs fluidized mitochondria-mimetic membranes and inhibited the membrane lipid peroxidation with the potency correlating to their membrane interactivity. Landiolol is characterized as a drug devoid of the interactivity with membrane lipid rafts relating to β2-adrenergic receptor blockade. The differentiation between β1-blocking selectivity and non-selectivity is compatible with that between membrane non-interactivity and interactivity. The mitochondrial membrane fluidization by landiolol independent of blocking β1-adrenergic receptors is responsible for the antioxidant cardioprotection common to non-selective and selective β1-blockers. © 2013 Tsuchiya and Mizogami.
Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
Plant foods contain various flavonoids with nutraceutical and health benefits. Structurally different flavonoids were compared by the potency to interact with liposomal membranes in the context of their mode of action. A series of fluorescence polarisation measurements showed that flavonoids (1-10 μM) structure-dependently acted on the deeper regions of lipid bilayers to decrease membrane fluidity. Their comparative effects on cell-mimetic membranes, consisting of unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol, characterised the structure-membrane interactivity relationship: 3-hydroxylation of the C ring, non-modification of the B ring and 5,7-dihydroxylation of the A ring led to the greatest membrane interactivity, followed by 3′,4′-dihydroxylation of the B ring. Galangin and quercetin, meeting such a structural requirement, inhibited the proliferation of tumour cells at 10-100 μM, together with rigidifying cell membranes, but not membrane-inactive flavonoids. The structure-dependent membrane interaction, which modifies the fluidity, is mechanistically associated with flavonoid bioactivity in a membranous lipid phase. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.