Gifu-shi, Japan
Gifu-shi, Japan

Asahi University is a private university in Mizuho, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The school was first founded in 1971 as Gifu Dental University . It was renamed Asahi University in 1985 when the management department was added. Wikipedia.

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Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University | Mizogami M.,University of Fukui
Anesthesiology Research and Practice | Year: 2013

Despite a long history in medical and dental application, the molecular mechanism and precise site of action are still arguable for local anesthetics. Their effects are considered to be induced by acting on functional proteins, on membrane lipids, or on both. Local anesthetics primarily interact with sodium channels embedded in cell membranes to reduce the excitability of nerve cells and cardiomyocytes or produce a malfunction of the cardiovascular system. However, the membrane protein-interacting theory cannot explain all of the pharmacological and toxicological features of local anesthetics. The administered drug molecules must diffuse through the lipid barriers of nerve sheaths and penetrate into or across the lipid bilayers of cell membranes to reach the acting site on transmembrane proteins. Amphiphilic local anesthetics interact hydrophobically and electrostatically with lipid bilayers and modify their physicochemical property, with the direct inhibition of membrane functions, and with the resultant alteration of the membrane lipid environments surrounding transmembrane proteins and the subsequent protein conformational change, leading to the inhibition of channel functions. We review recent studies on the interaction of local anesthetics with biomembranes consisting of phospholipids and cholesterol. Understanding the membrane interactivity of local anesthetics would provide novel insights into their anesthetic and cardiotoxic effects. © 2013 Hironori Tsuchiya and Maki Mizogami.

Although β1-blockers have been perioperatively used to reduce the cardiac disorders associated with general anesthesia, little is known about the mechanistic characteristics of ultra-short-acting highly selective β1-blocker landiolol. We studied its membrane-interacting property in comparison with other selective and non-selective β1-blockers. Biomimetic membranes prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol of varying compositions were treated with β1-selective landiolol and esmolol and non-selective propranolol and alprenolol at 0.5-200 μM. The membrane interactivity and the antioxidant activity were determined by measuring fluorescence polarization and by peroxidizing membrane lipids with peroxynitrite, respectively. Non-selective β1-blockers, but not selective ones, intensively acted on 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomal membranes and cardiomyocyte-mimetic membranes to increase the membrane fluidity. Landiolol and its inactive metabolite distinctively decreased the fluidity of DPPC liposomal membranes, suggesting that a membrane-rigidifying effect is attributed to the morpholine moiety in landiolol structure but unlikely to clinically contribute to the β1-blocking effect of landiolol. Propranolol and alprenolol interacted with lipid raft model membranes, whereas neither landiolol nor esmolol. All drugs fluidized mitochondria-mimetic membranes and inhibited the membrane lipid peroxidation with the potency correlating to their membrane interactivity. Landiolol is characterized as a drug devoid of the interactivity with membrane lipid rafts relating to β2-adrenergic receptor blockade. The differentiation between β1-blocking selectivity and non-selectivity is compatible with that between membrane non-interactivity and interactivity. The mitochondrial membrane fluidization by landiolol independent of blocking β1-adrenergic receptors is responsible for the antioxidant cardioprotection common to non-selective and selective β1-blockers. © 2013 Tsuchiya and Mizogami.

Clinicians often experience the reduced efficacy of general and local anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs in habitual drinkers and chronic alcoholics. However, the mechanistic background underlying such anesthetic tolerance remains unclear. Biogenic indoleamines condense with alcohol-derived aldehydes during fermentation processes and under physiological conditions to produce neuro-active tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines, many of which are contained not only in various alcoholic beverages but also in human tissues and body fluids. These indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products are increased in the human body because of their exogenous and endogenous supply enhanced by alcoholic beverage consumption. Since tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines target receptors, ion channels and neuronal membranes which are common to anesthetic agents, we propose a hypothesis that they may pharmacodynamically interact at GABAA receptors, NMDA receptors, voltage-gated Na+ channels and membrane lipid bilayers to attenuate anesthetics-induced positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulation, NMDA receptor antagonism, ion channel blockade and neuronal membrane modification, thereby affecting anesthetic efficacy. The condensation products may also cooperatively interact with ethanol that induces adaptive changes and cross-tolerance to anesthetics and with dopamine-aldehyde adducts that act on GABAA receptors and membrane lipids. Because tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines are metabolized to lose or decrease their neuro-activities, induction of the relevant enzymes by habitual drinking could produce an inter-individual difference of drinkers in susceptibility to anesthetic agents. The present hypothesis would also provide a unified framework for different modes of anesthetic action, which are inhibited by neuro-active indoleamine-aldehyde condensation products associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Into T.,Asahi University | Inomata M.,Asahi University | Takayama E.,Asahi University | Takigawa T.,Asahi University
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve as the major innate immune sensors for detection of specific molecular patterns on various pathogens. TLRs activate signaling events mainly by utilizing ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms. Recent research advances have provided evidence that TLR signaling is linked to induction of autophagy. Autophagy is currently known to affect both of the immune defense and suppression of inflammatory responses. In TLR-associated immune responses, autophagic lysis of intracellular microbes (called xenophagy) contributes to the former mechanism, while the latter seems to be mediated by the control of the mitochondrial integrity or selective autophagic clearance of aggregated signaling proteins (called aggrephagy). Several autophagy-related ubiquitin-binding proteins, such as SQSTM1/p62 and NDP52, mediate xenophagy and aggrephagy. In this review, we summarize the expanded knowledge regarding TLR signaling and autophagy signaling. After that, we will focus on autophagy-associated signaling downstream of TLRs and the effect of autophagy on TLR signaling, thus highlighting the signaling crosstalk between the TLR-associated innate immune responses and the regulation of innate immunity by xenophagy and aggrephagy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University | Mizogami M.,Asahi University
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2012

It remains questionable whether local anesthetics can interact with membrane lipids at clinically relevant concentrations to show the difference between enantiomers. We compared the effects of bupivacaine stereoisomers on biomimetic membranes containing cardiolipin and cholesterol. Bupivacaine interacted with the membranes at cardiotoxic 5 μM with the potency being S(-)-enantiomer < racemate < R(+)-enantiomer, which agreed with the rank order of their cardiotoxicity. Such differences became greater with decreasing drug concentrations, possibly explaining the inconsistent cardiotoxic potencies of bupivacaine stereoisomers reported previously. The interactivity with biomembranes may in part contribute to the mode of toxic action of local anesthetics. Copyright © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society.

Okamoto H.,Asahi University
Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion | Year: 2010

A study was to investigate the cobalt-niobium (Co-Nb) phase diagram. The Co-Nb phase diagram was calculated by taking into account the latest data. This phase diagram was expanded to higher and lower temperatures following the trend shown in another phase diagram. An interesting feature of this phase diagram was that Co 2Nb existed in three forms side by side. αCo 2Nb and βCo 2Nb were shown as line compounds and named Co 3Nb and Co 16Nb 9 in the diagram.

Inomata M.,Asahi University | Niida S.,National Institute for Longevity science | Shibata K.-I.,Hokkaido University | Into T.,Asahi University
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is linked to autophagy that facilitates elimination of intracellular pathogens. However, it is largely unknown whether autophagy controls TLR signaling. Here, we report that poly (I: C) stimulation induces selective autophagic degradation of the TLR adaptor molecule TRIF and the signaling molecule TRAF6, which is revealed by gene silencing of the ubiquitin- editing enzyme A20. This type of autophagy induced formation of autophagosomes and could be suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and lysosomal inhibitors. However, this autophagy was not associated with canonical autophagic processes, including involvement of Beclin-1 and conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Through screening of TRIF-interacting 'autophagy receptors' in human cells, we identified that NDP52 mediated the selective autophagic degradation of TRIF and TRAF6 but not TRAF3. NDP52 was polyubiquitinated by TRAF6 and was involved in aggregation of TRAF6, which may result in the selective degradation. Intriguingly, only under the condition of A20 silencing, NDP52 could effectively suppress poly (I: C) - induced proinflammatory gene expression. Thus, this study clarifies a selective autophagic mechanism mediated by NDP52 that works downstream of TRIF-TRAF6. Furthermore, although A20 is known as a signaling fine-tuner to prevent excess TLR signaling, it paradoxically downregulates the fine-tuning effect of NDP52 on TLR signaling. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

In addition to interacting with functional proteins such as receptors, ion channels, and enzymes, a variety of drugs mechanistically act on membrane lipids to change the physicochemical properties of biomembranes as reported for anesthetic, adrenergic, cholinergic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, and antioxidant drugs. As well as these membrane-acting drugs, bioactive plant components, phytochemicals, with amphiphilic or hydrophobic structures, are presumed to interact with biological membranes and biomimetic membranes prepared with phospholipids and cholesterol, resulting in the modification of membrane fluidity, microviscosity, order, elasticity, and permeability with the potencies being consistent with their pharmacological effects. A novel mechanistic point of view of phytochemicals would lead to a better understanding of their bioactivities, an insight into their medicinal benefits, and a strategic implication for discovering drug leads from plants. This article reviews the membrane interactions of different classes of phytochemicals by highlighting their induced changes in membrane property. The phytochemicals to be reviewed include membrane-interactive flavonoids, terpenoids, stilbenoids, capsaicinoids, phloroglucinols, naphthodianthrones, organosulfur compounds, alkaloids, anthraquinonoids, ginsenosides, pentacyclic triterpene acids, and curcuminoids. The membrane interaction's applicability to the discovery of phytochemical drug leads is also discussed while referring to previous screening and isolating studies. © 2015 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Hayashi T.,Asahi University | Koyama N.,Asahi University | Azuma Y.,Asahi University | Kashimata M.,Asahi University
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

Branching morphogenesis in murine submandibular glands (SMG) is regulated by growth factors, extracellular matrix (ECM) and many biological processes through interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of small, non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. We hypothesized that branching morphogenesis is partly regulated by miRNAs. Forty-four miRNAs and novel miRNA candidates were detected in SMG at embryonic day 13 by a cloning method combined with Argonaute-2 immunoprecipitation. MicroRNA21 (miR-21) expression in the mesenchyme was up-regulated and accelerated by epidermal growth factor, which is known to enhance branching morphogenesis in vitro. Down-regulation of miR-21 in the mesenchyme by locked nucleic acids was associated with a decrease in the number of epithelial buds. Relative quantification of candidates for target genes of miR-21 indicated that two messenger RNAs (for Reck and Pdcd4) were down-regulated in the mesenchyme, where miR-21 expression levels were up-regulated. These results suggest that branching morphogenesis is regulated by miR-21 through gene expression related to ECM degradation in the mesenchyme. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Tsuchiya H.,Asahi University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Plant foods contain various flavonoids with nutraceutical and health benefits. Structurally different flavonoids were compared by the potency to interact with liposomal membranes in the context of their mode of action. A series of fluorescence polarisation measurements showed that flavonoids (1-10 μM) structure-dependently acted on the deeper regions of lipid bilayers to decrease membrane fluidity. Their comparative effects on cell-mimetic membranes, consisting of unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol, characterised the structure-membrane interactivity relationship: 3-hydroxylation of the C ring, non-modification of the B ring and 5,7-dihydroxylation of the A ring led to the greatest membrane interactivity, followed by 3′,4′-dihydroxylation of the B ring. Galangin and quercetin, meeting such a structural requirement, inhibited the proliferation of tumour cells at 10-100 μM, together with rigidifying cell membranes, but not membrane-inactive flavonoids. The structure-dependent membrane interaction, which modifies the fluidity, is mechanistically associated with flavonoid bioactivity in a membranous lipid phase. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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