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Alemi-Ardakani M.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Yannacopoulos S.,University of British Columbia | Bichler L.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

With the advancement of testing tools, the ability to characterize mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites under extreme loading scenarios has allowed designers to use these materials in high-level applications more confidently. Conventionally, impact characterization of composite materials is studied via nondestructive techniques such as ultrasonic C-scanning, infrared thermography, X-ray, and acoustography. None of these techniques, however, enable 3D microscale visualization of the damage at different layers of composite laminates. In this paper, a 3D microtomographic technique has been employed to visualize and compare impact damage modes in a set of thermoplastic laminates. The test samples were made of commingled polypropylene (PP) and glass fibers with two different architectures, including the plain woven and unidirectional. Impact testing using a drop-weight tower, followed by postimpact four-point flexural testing and nondestructive tomographic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the type of fibre architecture and the induced impact damage mechanisms and their extensions. © 2013 M. Alemi-Ardakani et al.


Lynam C.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Trudel-Boucher D.,Industrial Materials Institute of Canada | Borazghi H.,AS Composite Inc.
Journal of Composite Materials | Year: 2014

Thermal deformations that occur during formation of long-fiber-reinforced composites have been a continued challenge for manufacturers as the final shape of a given part can be different from the original mold shape. The ensuing dimensional distortions can be difficult to predict due to complex thermo-mechanical behaviour of composite laminates during different forming cycles. This study intends to model the fundamental mechanisms that lead to thermal deformations during forming of a thermoplastic matrix composite comprised of comingled polypropylene and E-glass fibers. While the discussion is framed around a custom-design multi-stage roll-forming process, it is also relevant to a wider range of thermoplastic composites manufacturing processes. A methodology is developed to characterize the thermal mechanical behavior of the material, optimize the manufacturing process, and predict the magnitude of resulting spring-in angle due to thermal deformations. It is found that the process control parameters can be optimized first such that the crystallization of the matrix occurs at an ideal position along the forming line. Once the process is optimized, the developed numerical model, with a thermoelastic material behaviour, can give an adequate prediction of spring-in at the end of the process. Finally, through a comparative study, it is discussed how for other manufacturing processes, such as compression molding, including a thermoviscoelastic liquid/solid material behaviour may be required to yield accurate spring-in predictions. © The Author(s) 2013.


Lynam C.D.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Trudel-Boucher D.,Industrial Materials Institute of Canada | Borazghi H.,AS Composite Inc.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2011

Thermal variations during the manufacturing of fibre-reinforced polymer composites can cause dimensional distortions in the final parts. Such deformations are mainly due to different thermal properties of composite constituents, as well as the interaction between mould and part during forming. During the process development of a new part, the amount of thermal deformation can be difficult to predict as it depends on several factors including the composite constituent's material properties, the process thermal cycle and rate, the composite layup and part geometry, as well as the tooling material's thermal properties. Currently in industry, trial and error iterations of tooling geometries and process cycles are commonly used until a correct part shape is produced. In order to reduce the time and cost associated with these iterations, this article investigates the possibility of computer modeling for predicting dimensional distortions of thermoplastic matrix composite laminates during a custom-designed, multi-stage roll forming process.


News Article | November 17, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

The report "Composites Testing Market by Testing Type (Destructive, Non-Destructive), Product Type (Continuous Fiber, Discontinuous Fiber, Polymer Matrix, Ceramic Matrix), Application (Aerospace & Defense, Transportation, Wind) & Region - Global Forecast to 2026", Published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is projected to reach USD 3.06 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 6.95%, from 2016 to 2026. (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160303/792302 ) Browse 75 market data Tables and 52 Figures spread through 143 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Composites Testing Market" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/composite-testing-market-244333142.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The high penetration of composites in various high end applications and stringent regulatory norms stressing upon the quality of composites are driving the growth of the global composites testing market. Continuous fiber composites comprise a major share in the composites testing market in terms of value Continuous fiber composites have the largest market share in the global composites testing market. Owing to their superior performance, continuous fiber composites are extensively used in high-end applications such as aerospace & defense and transportation. Since the share of composites in these applications is very high, the market for continuous fiber composites testing is also very large as compared to the testing of other composite products. Further, the demand for continuous fiber composites is also very high from the next generation aircraft, fighter planes and advanced light weight automotive, which further increases the share in the composites testing market. Non-destructive testing accounted for the largest market share in the composites testing market Non-destructive testing is done to test the composites that are mostly used in critical safety applications for example in aircraft primary structures and interior and exterior structures of transport vehicles. The non-destructive testing of such composite materials is more crucial and demanding in these high-end applications to ensure the quality of composites and safety of passengers. The high growth of the global aerospace & defense and transportation industries, coupled with the increasing penetration of composites in aircraft is driving the non-destructive composites testing market Europe accounts for a major market share of the composites testing market Europe accounts for the largest share in Composites Testing Market, globally. This is due to the high demand for composites from Europe's commercial aircraft and transportation industry, the presence of major composite testing service providers and the stringent regulatory norms such as, by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) to ensure and maintain the quality of composites.  The composites testing service providers in this region are focusing on capacity expansions in composites production to meet the high demand for non-destructive testing from commercial airline companies. For instance, Exova Group Plc. invested millions of Euros in Exova's aerospace composites and metals testing site in Toulouse (France) in October 2013, which is helping the company to increase its capacity to meet customer needs. Further, the penetration of composites is growing in the wind energy application in Europe, which is further driving the composites testing market in this region. Some of the key global players in the composites testing market are Exova Group plc (U.K.), Intertek Group plc (U.K.), Mistras Group Inc. (U.S.)., Element Materials Technology (U.S.), Westmoreland Mechanical Testing & Research Inc. (U.S.), Matrix Composite Inc. (U.K.), Instron (U.K.), ETIM Composites Testing Laboratory (France), Henkel AG & CO. KGaA (Germany). These players have adopted various organic and inorganic developmental strategies for the period, 2016 to 2021. Composites Market by Type (Carbon Fiber Composites, Glass Fiber Composites and Others), Resin Type (Thermoplastic Composites and Thermosetting Composites), Manufacturing Process, Application and by Region - Global Trends and Forecasts to 2021 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/composite-market-200051282.html Aerospace Composites Market by Fiber Type (Glass, Carbon, Aramid), Resin Type (Epoxy, Phenolic, Polyester, Polyamide, Thermoplastic), Aircraft Type (Commercial, Business & Ga, Military, Civil), Application and Region - Global Forecast to 2021 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/aerospace-composites-market-246663558.html MarketsandMarkets is the largest market research firm worldwide in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to a multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. M&M's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets. The new included chapters on Methodology and Benchmarking presented with high quality analytical infographics in our reports gives complete visibility of how the numbers have been arrived and defend the accuracy of the numbers. We at MarketsandMarkets are inspired to help our clients grow by providing apt business insight with our huge market intelligence repository. Contact: Mr. Rohan MarketsandMarkets 701 Pike Street, Suite 2175, Seattle, WA 98101, United States Tel: +1-888-600-6441 Email: sales@marketsandmarkets.com Visit MarketsandMarkets Blog @ http://www.marketsandmarketsblog.com/market-reports/chemical Connect with us on LinkedIn @ http://www.linkedin.com/company/marketsandmarkets


Alemi-Ardakani M.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Yannacopoulos S.,University of British Columbia | Borazghi H.,AS Composite Inc.
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2015

Abstract Taguchi design of experiments is a much known statistical method for cost/time reduction during experimental investigation and quality engineering of complex systems and processes. In the present article, efficiency, accuracy, strengths and limitations of this method in predicting and discretely optimizing impact response of FRP composites have been studied through a case study on polypropylene/E-glass laminates with unidirectional, plain, and twill weave architectures. In parallel, drop weight impact tests, X-ray micro-tomography, and pre- and post-impact four-point flexural testing are employed for two purposes: (a) gaining further knowledge on induced impact damage mechanisms, and (b) further assessment and verification of the Taguchi results. In spite of the fact that impact events of the FRP laminates are highly nonlinear and accompany high level of uncertainty, it was found that this design of experiments method is capable of predicting and maximizing the absorbed impact energy with a reduced number of runs and reasonable error. Finally, by correlating macro-level predictions to micro-level damage observations via X-ray tomography, the underlying assumptions of the method were further scrutinized, and in particular it was found that the plies interaction effect is not a limiting factor in predicting the total absorbed energy of the laminates. Overall, the experimental time/cost saving in the performed impact optimization case study was over 50% using the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Alemi-Ardakani M.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Yannacopoulos S.,University of British Columbia | Shokouhi G.,AS Composite Inc.
Materials Today Communications | Year: 2015

The use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) is rapidly increasing in air, land, and marine manufacturing sectors. This is despite the fact that a universal methodology has not been yet developed to assist designers in selecting optimum reinforcing fiber architectures under different loading scenarios. The focus of the present article is to recommend a systematic approach for selecting the architecture of long-fiber fabric reinforcements in FRP composite structures under impact events. Namely, nine design criteria were selected and quantified for four types of PP/glass laminates through drop tower impact testing under 200. J energy, four-point flexural bending before and after impact, as well as microtomographic damage analysis of impacted samples. Subsequently, ranking of the candidate laminates was found using a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) technique to aid in selecting the overall best performing fiber reinforcement option under the presence of conflicting and inter-dependent design attributes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Schuetze D.D.C.,University of British Columbia | Gordnian K.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Poursartip A.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2013

Thermal profile during the forming processes of polymer matrix composites is known to have a significant effect on the associated, often undesired, deformations such as spring-in or spring forward in the finished products. This article discusses comprehensive heat transfer finite element modeling of a multi-stage roll forming process on a typical thermoplastic composite, in order to assist in predicting and adjusting the thermal profile of the material along the forming line, and therefore controlling the dimensional distortion of the finished curved part. Copyright 2013 by Aurora Flight Sciences.


Azad M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Hojjati M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Borazghi H.,AS Composite Inc.
Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015 | Year: 2015

Using a chemical foaming agent (CFA) along with a thermoplastic polymer in a foam extrusion process has a significant effect on the density and thickness of the final product so that highly light-weight and low-cost structures could be achieved. In this experimental study we have investigated the thermal and chemical behavior of two different types of CFA and their effect on the foam quality and physical/mechanical properties of the final product in an extrusion foaming process. A polypropylene-based thermoplastic (PP) sheet was produced via a plastic extrusion machine with 12″ width and 4mm thickness. An exothermic foaming agent Azodicarbonamide (EV AZ-3.0) was added into the PP pellets in 5 wt%. They were completely mixed and melted inside the extruder to decompose and liberate gas. The melt temperature and pressure must be high enough to guarantee a total decomposition of the foaming agent and make the generated gas dissolved inside the polymer melt until it exits from the die opening. The same trial was conducted with an endothermic CFA named Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene (PN-40E). Our thermal TGA analysis and physical tests demonstrate that each of the foaming agents has its own unique specifications which could be utilized based on the operating temperature and pressure. However, using the exothermic CFA is recommended for the PP-based thermoplastic foams as it can build up the product with low weight and high specific stiffness. Copyright © 2015 by DEStech Publications, Inc. and American Society for Composites. All rights reserved.


Alemi-Ardakani M.,University of British Columbia | Milani A.S.,University of British Columbia | Yannacopoulos S.,University of British Columbia | Shokouhi G.,AS Composite Inc.
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2016

To date, no specific framework has been developed to guide composite structure designers to select the optimum fiber types and fabric weave patterns for a given application. This article aims to, first, investigate the effect of weighting methods in multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) and then arrive at a systematic framework for optimum weave pattern selection in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Namely, via measured data from an industrial case study, the TOPSIS MCDM technique has been applied to choose the best candidate among different polypropylene/glass laminates. As an input to TOPSIS, different types of subjective and objective weighting methods were initially compared to assess the role of relative importance values (weights) of design criteria. These included the Entropy method, the modified digital logic (MDL) method, and the criteria importance through inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) method. Next, two new subjective weighting methods, named 'Numeric Logic (NL)' and 'Adjustable Mean Bars (AMB)' methods, were introduced to give more practical and effective means to the decision makers during the weighting of criteria. In particular, compared to the MDL, the NL method increased the accuracy of assigned weights for an expert DM. On the other hand, the AMB provided a more interactive, visual approach through MCDM weighting process for less experienced DMs. Finally, a generalized combinative weighting framework is presented to show how different types of weightings may be combined to find more reliable rankings of alternatives. The combinative weighting could specifically accommodate different scenarios where a group of designers are involved and have different levels of experience, while given a large number of alternatives/criteria in highly nonlinear applications such as impact design of composite materials. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Azad M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Hojjati M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Borazghi H.,AS Composite Inc.
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2016

Thermoplastic sandwich panels are gaining more attentions in automotive and construction applications since they can be readily formed into the light weight complex structures with high flexural rigidity. In this experimental study, the effect of using a foamed core on the mechanical and physical properties of composite sandwich panels was investigated. Chopped glass fiber reinforced polypropylene was foamed using an exothermic foaming agent through an extrusion process and sandwiched between two composite thermoplastic skins to make the sandwich panel. The solid core material is composed of recycled polypropylene and shreds of recycled Glass/PP. A commercial exothermic foaming agent was used to liberate gas inside the extruder and produce foam. Commingled E-Glass/polypropylene woven fabrics are used as the face sheets. Foaming such an extruded PP/GF core leads to an increase in core thickness and decrease in core density. Furthermore, results of the flexural tests (3-point bending) indicate that foamed-core sandwich panels have higher bending stiffness (EI) and lower deformation comparing with the solid-core sandwich panels due to the expansion in their thickness. However, results of the peel-off test show that the bonding strength between the core and face sheets of the foamed-core sandwich panel is slightly lower than that of the solid one due to the spongy surface of the core and less contact area between the core and face sheets. Copyright 2016. Used by the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering with permission.

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