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Brisson N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gate P.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Gouache D.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Charmet G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

The last two decades are witnessing a decline in the growth trend of cereal yields in many European countries. The present study analyses yield trends in France using various sources of data: national and regional statistics, scattered trials, results of agroclimatic models using climatic data. Effects in genetic changes through breeding, agronomy and climate are investigated as possible causes. Our results show that genetic progress has not declined but it was partly counteracted, from 1990 on, by climate change which in general is unfavorable to cereal yields in temperate climates because of heat stress during grain filling and drought during stem elongation. We cannot however, from the decade beginning in 2000, rule out agronomic causes, related to policy and economy, in particular the decline of legumes in the cereal rotations, replaced by oilseed rape and to a lesser extent the decrease in nitrogen fertilization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chardon F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Noel V.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Masclaux-Daubresse C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

There is evidence that crop yields are showing a trend of stagnation in many countries. This review aims to make an inventory of the last decade's crop productions and the associated economic and environmental challenges. Manipulating nitrogen use efficiency in crops appears to be the best way to conciliate global food security, respecting environmental policies, and the need to produce biofuels. In such a context, the specifications of ideal plants for the future are discussed with regards to human needs and taking into account current physiological and genetic knowledge. The approaches undertaken so far to design an ideal crop and to find suitable new germplasms are discussed. The interest in using model plants in agronomic research is illustrated through the recent data provided by studies exploring natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Efficient Arabidopsis ideotypes are proposed and discussed. © 2012 The Author.


Bernard F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bernard F.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Sache I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Suffert F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chelle M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

The thermal performance curve is an ecological concept relating the phenotype of organisms and temperature. It requires characterization of the leaf temperature for foliar fungal pathogens. Epidemiologists, however, use air temperature to assess the impacts of temperature on such pathogens. Leaf temperature can differ greatly from air temperature, either in controlled or field conditions. This leads to a misunderstanding of such impacts. Experiments were carried out in controlled conditions on adult wheat plants to characterize the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola to a wide range of leaf temperatures. Three fungal isolates were used. Lesion development was assessed twice a week, whereas the temperature of each leaf was monitored continuously. Leaf temperature had an impact on disease dynamics. The latent period of M. graminicola was related to leaf temperature by a quadratic relationship. The establishment of thermal performance curves demonstrated differences among isolates as well as among leaf layers. For the first time, the thermal performance curve of a foliar fungal pathogen has been established using leaf temperature. The experimental setup we propose is applicable, and efficient, for other foliar fungal pathogens. Results have shown the necessity of such an approach, when studying the acclimatization of foliar fungal pathogens. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.


Attard E.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Recous S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chabbi A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | De Berranger C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2011

Land-use practices aiming at increasing agro-ecosystem sustainability, e.g. no-till systems and use of temporary grasslands, have been developed in cropping areas, but their environmental benefits could be counterbalanced by increased N2O emissions produced, in particular during denitrification. Modelling denitrification in this context is thus of major importance. However, to what extent can changes in denitrification be predicted by representing the denitrifying community as a black box, i.e. without an adequate representation of the biological characteristics (abundance and composition) of this community, remains unclear. We analysed the effect of changes in land uses on denitrifiers for two different agricultural systems: (i) crop/grassland conversion and (ii) cessation/application of tillage. We surveyed potential denitrification (PD), the abundance and genetic structure of denitrifiers (nitrite reducers), and soil environmental conditions. N2O emissions were also measured during periods of several days on control plots. Time-integrated N2O emissions and PD were well correlated among all control plots. Changes in PD were partly due to changes in denitrifier abundance but were not related to changes in the structure of the denitrifier community. Using multiple regression analysis, we showed that changes in PD were more related to changes in soil environmental conditions than in denitrifier abundance. Soil organic carbon explained 81% of the variance observed for PD at the crop/temporary grassland site, whereas soil organic carbon, water-filled pore space and nitrate explained 92% of PD variance at the till/no-till site, without any residual effect of denitrifier abundance. Soil environmental conditions influenced PD by modifying the specific activity of denitrifiers, and to a lesser extent by promoting a build-up of denitrifiers. Our results show that an accurate simulation of carbon, oxygen and nitrate availability to denitrifiers is more important than an accurate simulation of denitrifier abundance and community structure to adequately understand and predict changes in PD in response to land-use changes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Dimassi B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cohan J.-P.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Labreuche J.,ARVALIS Institute du Vegetal | Mary B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Although continuous no-till (NT) is recommended for erosion control and carbon sequestration, it often has a limited duration since farmers alternate between NT and full inversion tillage (FIT) to control weed infestation and avoid soil compaction. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of continuous tillage and tillage conversion of NT to FIT and vice versa on SOC and SON stocks, in a long-term experiment at Boigneville in Northern France. Continuous NT (CNT) and FIT (CFIT) treatments were established in 1991 and maintained until 2011 while half of the plots were converted in 2005: from CNT to new FIT (NFIT) and CFIT to new NT (NNT). Bulk densities and organic C and N contents were determined in 2001 and 2011 down to the old ploughing depth (opd) which was also measured. SOC and SON stocks were calculated at equivalent soil mass by correcting either bulk densities or the opd. Both methods produced very close results and similar conclusions.A typical gradient of SOC and SON concentrations vs depth was observed in CNT as opposed to a rather uniform distribution in CFIT. CNT resulted in SOC concentration in the top soil (0-5cm) higher by 38% in 2001 and 53% in 2011 compared to CFIT. Conversely, it led to a SOC reduction in the deeper layer (ca. 10-28cm) by 14% in 2001 and 18% in 2011. The global effect was no significant change in SOC and SON stocks between treatments over the old ploughed layer (4060tsoilha-1) in both years: 43.2 and 45.0tCha-1 in 2001 and 44.7 and 45.8tCha-1 in 2011, in CNT and CFIT, respectively.In 2011, six years after tillage conversion, the stratification of SOC and SON had disappeared in NFIT whereas a new one had appeared in NNT with a smaller gradient than in CNT. SOC or SON stocks over the old ploughed layer did not differ significantly between treatments after 6 years of conversion: SOC stocks were 45.8, 43.2, 44.7 and 43.1tCha-1 in the CFIT, NFIT, CNT and NNT treatments, respectively. Furthermore, SOC stocks below the old ploughed layer (ca. 28-40cm) were slightly greater in FIT than in NT treatment (10.9 vs 8.7tCha-1). In this experiment, continuous or conversion tillage did not result in any C sequestration benefit. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Papaix J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Goyeau H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Du Cheyron P.,ARVALIS Institute du vegetal | Monod H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lannou C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

In plant pathology, the idea of designing variety management strategies at the scale of cultivated landscapes is gaining more and more attention. This requires the identification of effects that take place at large scales on host and pathogen populations. Here, we show how the landscape varietal composition influences the resistance level (as measured in the field) of the most grown wheat varieties by altering the structure of the pathogen populations. For this purpose, we jointly analysed three large datasets describing the wheat leaf rust pathosystem (Puccinia triticina/Triticum aestivum) at the country scale of France with a Bayesian hierarchical model. We showed that among all compatible pathotypes, some were preferentially associated with a variety, that the pathotype frequencies on a variety were affected by the landscape varietal composition, and that the observed resistance level of a variety was linked to the frequency of the most aggressive pathotypes among all compatible pathotypes. This data exploration establishes a link between the observed resistance level of a variety and landscape composition at the national scale. It illustrates that the quantitative aspects of the host-pathogen relationship have to be considered in addition to the major resistance/virulence factors in landscape epidemiology approaches. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 4.89M | Year: 2012

ADAPTAWHEAT will show how flowering time variation can be exploited for the genetic improvement of the European wheat crop to optimise adaptation and performance in the light of predicted climate change. It will test current hypotheses that postulate specific changes in ear emergence and the timing and duration of developmental phases, which are thought of as components of ear emergence, will improve wheat productivity. Precise genetic stocks varying in specific flowering time elements and subjected to genotyping and characterisation with diagnostic markers for key flowering time genes will be used to test these hypotheses. They will be phenotyped at the molecular (transcript abundance), physiological (growth stage dissection) and agronomic (yield components) levels in multiple field trials located at sites in Europe that represent regional agricultural diversity and at non European locations that have mega environments of relevance. Controlled environment experiments will investigate specific environmental interactions including day length, ambient temperature, and heat stress. Data analysis will aid the construction of new wheat flowering models that can be used to refine existing hypotheses. They will allow standing genetic variation for flowering time in European germplasm to be deployed more efficiently in wheat breeding programmes. This knowledge will be used to inform searches for specific phenotypic and molecular variants in diverse and non adapted wheat germplasm panels provided by consortium members. Vital novel genetic variation will be efficiently imported into the germplasm of European wheat breeders. The project will deliver new diagnostic markers for genotyping, molecular reporters for novel breeding selection strategies and the tools and knowledge necessary for a combined physiology and genomics led predictive wheat breeding programme. A conduit for these outcomes will be three SMEs, who will exploit the tools developed to deliver these outcomes.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.4-06 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2012

Agricultural production faces numerous challenges regarding competitiveness, conserving natural and non-renewable resources (water, soil, air, phosphorus, fossil fuels) and ecosystem services (pollination, natural pest control, soil fertility). Society also expects from agriculture to be more environment-friendly in several issues such as climatic change, declining biodiversity, fossil energy depletion, and water shortage. To overcome these limitations, CANTOGETHER will design innovative sustainable mixed farming systems (MFS). A design-assessment-adjustment iterative cycle will be adopted to ensure continuous validation and improvement of the innovative investigated MFS through a participative approach involving stakeholders and researchers across Europe. It will bring together a European network of 24 existing experimental and commercial farms covering a wide diversity of natural and socio-economic conditions in which the most promising MFS will be implemented in order to verify their practicability and to perform an in-depth integrated assessment (economic and environmental). The MFS will be designed for individual farm level or collective implementation at the territorial level. At the same time, CANTOGETHER will define recommendations for a common agricultural policy promoting the development of these MFS. The innovative analysed MFS will be based on the simultaneous utilization of crops (cash, feed and energetic) and various rearing animals with full recycling practices of animal wastes in view to ensure high resource-use efficiency (notably of nutrients), reduction in dependence on external inputs (fertilisers, pesticides, concentrated feeds), and acceptable environmental and economic performances. CANTOGETHER will produce a complete picture of their effects and will facilitate their adoption by jointly involving researchers and the key actors of the agricultural sector (farmers, advisors, policy makers, and actors of the food supply chain).


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 34.71M | Year: 2017

The IoF2020 project is dedicated to accelerate adoption of IoT for securing sufficient, safe and healthy food and to strengthen competitiveness of farming and food chains in Europe. It will consolidate Europes leading position in the global IoT industry by fostering a symbiotic ecosystem of farmers, food industry, technology providers and research institutes. The IoF2020 consortium of 73 partners, led by Wageningen UR and other core partners of previous key projects such as FIWARE and IoT-A, will leverage the ecosystem and architecture that was established in those projects. The heart of the project is formed by 19 use cases grouped in 5 trials with end users from the Arable, Dairy, Fruits, Vegetables and Meat verticals and IoT integrators that will demonstrate the business case of innovative IoT solutions for a large number of application areas. A lean multi-actor approach focusing on user acceptability, stakeholder engagement and sustainable business models will boost technology and market readiness levels and bring end user adoption to the next stage. This development will be enhanced by an open IoT architecture and infrastructure of reusable components based on existing standards and a security and privacy framework. Anticipating vast technological developments and emerging challenges for farming and food, the 4-year project stays agile through dynamic budgeting and adaptive decision-making by an implementation board of representatives from key user organizations. A 6 M mid-term open call will allow for testing intermediate results and extending the project with technical solutions and test sites. A coherent dissemination strategy for use case products and project learnings supported by leading user organizations will ensure a high market visibility and an increased learning curve. Thus IoF2020 will pave the way for data-driven farming, autonomous operations, virtual food chains and personalized nutrition for European citizens.


Patent
Arvalis Institute Du Vegetal and Chopin Technologies | Date: 2010-11-19

A process for simplified production of a reference milling for determining the milling quality of wheat, includes: a first crushing of a wheat sample; a first sieving of the crushed product into three distinct levels of particle size; a second crushing of oversize particles resulting from the first crushing; a second sieving of the oversize particles thus crushed; a mixing of coarse semolina resulting from the sievings; a third crushing of the mixture of the coarse semolina; a third sieving of the mixture of the coarse semolina thus crushed into two distinct levels of particle size; a mixing of fine semolina resulting from each of the three sievings; a fourth crushing of the mixture of fine semolina; a fourth sieving of the mixture of the fine semolina thus crushed into a single level of particle size; a mixing of the flours resulting from sievings, the mixture constituting the desired milling.

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