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Arup is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom which provides engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment. The firm is present in Africa, the Americas, Australasia, East Asia, Europe and the Middle East, and has over 10,000 staff based in 92 offices across 37 countries. Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries. Wikipedia.

Molecular genetic testing of the FMR1 gene is commonly performed in clinical laboratories. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are associated with fragile X syndrome, fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome, and premature ovarian insufficiency. This document provides updated information regarding FMR1 gene mutations, including prevalence, genotype-phenotype correlation, and mutation nomenclature. Methodological considerations are provided for Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification of the FMR1 gene, including triplet repeat-primed and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. In addition to report elements, examples of laboratory reports for various genotypes are also included. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source

Au S.-K.,City University of Hong Kong | To P.,Arup
Journal of Structural Engineering (United States) | Year: 2012

This paper presents work on validating the dynamic wind load predicted by a wind tunnel model with the values identified from full-scale field vibration data of a super-tall building in Hong Kong. Dynamic wind load in this work refers to the power spectral density (PSD) of the modal force near the natural frequency of a particular mode of the building, in the context of random vibration with stationary loading and response. This quantity reflects the turbulence characteristics integrated over the building body and is of importance in wind engineering design. This study presents a method to predict the modal PSD of wind load of the first two translational modes of a tall building. The method combines wind tunnel test information and mean wind data available in the free field; the latter taken to be at the Waglan Island station maintained by the Hong Kong Observatory. On the full-scale side, although the modal PSD is not directly observable, it is identified from field vibration data measured at the building top during strong wind events. A Bayesian modal identification method is used for determining the most probable value and the uncertainty of the modal parameters including the natural frequency, damping ratio, and the modal PSD. A number of recent strong wind events are analyzed. Reasonable agreement is observed between the wind tunnel model predictions and the values identified from field data. Factors that can potentially lead to discrepancy are discussed. As the same random vibration modeling consistent with conventional wind engineering design has been used in the wind tunnel prediction model and field identification model, the results are directly transferable among these three disciplines. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Background: Reconstruction of population history from genetic data often requires Monte Carlo integration over the genealogy of the samples. Among tools that perform such computations, few are able to consider genetic histories including recombination events, precluding their use on most alignments of nuclear DNA. Explicit consideration of recombinations requires modeling the history of the sequences with an Ancestral Recombination Graph (ARG) in place of a simple tree, which presents significant computational challenges.Results: ACG is an extensible desktop application that uses a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the posterior likelihood of an evolutionary model conditional on an alignment of genetic data. The ancestry of the sequences is represented by an ARG, which is estimated from the data with other model parameters. Importantly, ACG computes the full, Felsenstein likelihood of the ARG, not a pairwise or composite likelihood. Several strategies are used to speed computations, and ACG is roughly 100x faster than a similar, recombination-aware program.Conclusions: Modeling the ancestry of the sequences with an ARG allows ACG to estimate the evolutionary history of recombining nucleotide sequences. ACG can accurately estimate the posterior distribution of population parameters such as the (scaled) population size and recombination rate, as well as many aspects of the recombinant history, including the positions of recombination breakpoints, the distribution of time to most recent common ancestor along the sequence, and the non-recombining trees at individual sites. Multiple substitution models and population size models are provided. ACG also provides a richly informative graphical interface that allows users to view the evolution of model parameters and likelihoods in real time. © 2013 O'Fallon; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kim C.,University of Utah | Wilson T.,University of Utah | Fischer K.F.,University of Utah | Fischer K.F.,Arup | Williams M.A.,University of Utah
Immunity | Year: 2013

During CD4+ Tcell activation, Tcell receptor (TCR) signals impact Tcell fate, including recruitment, expansion, differentiation, trafficking, and survival. To determine the impact of TCR signals on the fate decision of activated CD4+ Tcells to become end-stage effector or long-lived memory T helper 1 (Th1) cells, we devised a deep-sequencing-based approach that allowed us to track the evolution of TCR repertoires after acute infection. The transition of effector Th1 cells into the memory pool was associated with a significant decrease in repertoire diversity, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramer off rate, but not tetramer avidity, was a key predictive factor in the representation of individual clonal Tcell populations at the memory stage. We conclude that stable and sustained interactions with antigens during the development of Th1 responses to acute infection are a determinative factor in promoting the differentiation of Th1 memory cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Twinn C.,Arup
Building Research and Information | Year: 2013

With mankind on a trajectory towards an untenable situation on a finite planet, a radical acceleration is needed in society's direction towards sustainability. Instead, progress is slowing. There is a concentration on short-term returns and limited change, with small steps being promoted to the public as much greener than they actually are. A defining component of a profession is to work for the common good. However, UK built environment professionals seem to have been driven into a space in which they are expected to apply their skills with little question or reflection about the risks of business as usual. If professionals are to act as a positive catalyst and influence on wider society, then their practices and organizations will need to articulate more clearly how their independent protection of the public good will bring benefits. Changes to professional practice and professional organizations must focus on outcomes and long-term issues. © 2013 Taylor &Francis. Source

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