Chaussemier M.,EPF College of Engineering |
Pourmohtasham E.,EPF College of Engineering |
Gelus D.,Groupe SEB |
Pecoul N.,Groupe SEB |
And 4 more authors.
Desalination | Year: 2015
The formation of calcium carbonate in water has some important implications in geoscience researches, ocean chemistry studies, CO2 emission issues and biology. In industry, the scaling phenomenon may cause technical problems such as reduction of heat transfer efficiency in cooling systems and obstruction of pipes.The use of chemicals which act as antiscalant is a common approach in the control of scale deposition. However, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous compounds are involved in eutrophication process. Therefore, it is of prime importance to find alternative solutions, i.e. green inhibitors of scale formation. This last decade, several new scale inhibitors, that are more ecological compared with conventional inhibitors, have been reported in the literature. Plant extracts have been also recently used as new green antiscalants. Indeed, as they can be easily extracted and are environmentally friendly, they represent an interesting alternative source of "natural" organic molecules.In this review, a focus of some green antiscalants derived from petrochemicals has been reported. Then the efforts done those last years to obtain green inhibitors, either by using "natural" organic molecules or extracted from plants were summarized. Such green inhibitors might be used in various technical areas, i.e. energy, water, food and beverages industries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Audisio S.,INSAVALOR S.A |
Materiaux et Techniques | Year: 2015
A question raised regularly is in relation to corrosion of iron in fully deaerated neutral water without any other oxidiser than the H2O molecule. This appears to exist only briefly in limited school practical works on electrochemical metrology, but nowhere as field corrosion (field proven example of central heating). In this study, it is thus shown that this "educational" corrosive medium is widely imaginary, since totally unstable, and it can even be said in certain terms that it does not "afford" corrosion. For example it is shown that at 25 °C, the oxidising power associated with the cathodic reduction of water completely vanishes after a release of only 3 ppm of corroded iron, i.e. in practice a field corrosion less than one micron. It is also shown that all the usual electrochemical methods are really unable to detect or predict it, because these methods are themselves totally invalid in exhausted corrosive media, i.e. with equal redox potentials for the metal and the oxidiser. Once again, therefore, only the reference and guidance of field corrosion may prevent such historical collective blunders. © EDP Sciences, 2015.
Arts | Date: 2010-03-26
Thales Alenia and Arts | Date: 2010-09-07
The invention relates to a helmet including a protective shell. The protective shell includes an upper part and a lower part extending towards the bottom of the helmet. The upper part includes a sandwich composite material including two skins, disposed on either side of a core, themselves including a plurality of composite tissue layers, The lower part includes a monolithic composite material. The invention applies in a general manner to protective helmets and more particularly in the field of aeronautics where the rigid structure allows head equipment to be fixed directly onto the protective shell.
University of Lorraine, Metz National School of Engineering, Arts, INSA Rennes and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2012-11-07
According to a thermomechanical treatment process for a titanium alloy including between 23 and 27% niobium in atomic proportion, between 0 and 10% zirconium, and between 0 and 1% oxygen, nitrogen and/or silicon, the following steps are performed: a) an increase of a sample of the alloy to a temperature higher than 900 C., b) a fast quench, c) a severe cold strain, d) an ageing treatment at a temperature included between 200 and 600 C., the time of the ageing treatment being included between 10 seconds and 10 minutes. Alloy obtained by this process and prostheses made from such an alloy.