Quintavalle Pastorino G.,Zoological Society of London |
Quintavalle Pastorino G.,University of Milan |
Albertini M.,University of Milan |
Carlsen F.,Copenhagen Zoo |
And 15 more authors.
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2015
Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major threats to both wildlife and human health and, largely as a result of unintentional human-aided dispersal of their vector species, their cumulative threat is on the rise. Anthropogenic climate change is expected to be an increasingly significant driver of mosquito dispersal and associated disease spread. The potential health implications of changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance and, where necessary, vector control and other health-management measures. The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums initiative, Project MOSI, was established to help protect vulnerable wildlife species in zoological facilities from mosquito-transmitted pathogens by establishing a zoo-based network of fixed mosquito monitoring sites to assist wildlife health management and contribute data on mosquito spatio-temporal distribution changes. A pilot study for Project MOSI is described here, including project rationale and results that confirm the feasibility of conducting basic standardized year-round mosquito trapping and monitoring in a zoo environment. © 2015 The Zoological Society of London.
Pukazhenthi B.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute |
Quse V.,National University of Litoral |
Hoyer M.,Artis Royal Zoo |
van Engeldorp Gastelaars H.,Artis Royal Zoo |
And 3 more authors.
Integrative Zoology | Year: 2013
Tapirs (Tapirus sp.) have been studied extensively in the wild, yet little is known about their fundamental reproductive biology, information that is critical to establishing self-sustaining populations in captivity as a hedge against extinction. This paper reviews information on the reproductive biology of the 4 species of tapirs: Baird's (Tapirus bairdii), lowland (T terrestris), mountain (T pinchaque) and Malayan (T indicus). Both sexes reach puberty between 14 and 48 months of age. Behaviorally, tapirs display few overt signs of estrus, and external signs of pregnancy are not evident until approximately 2 months before parturition. Immunoassay techniques to measure reproductive hormones in blood and urine have been validated for tapirs, which allow monitoring of ovarian cycle activity and pregnancy. Data indicate that females are polyestrous, with an estrous cycle length of approximately 30 days. The exception is the Malayan tapir, which exhibits 2 types of cycles: short (approximately 1 month) and long (approximately 2 months). Gestation length is approximately 13 months and females can conceive at the first post-partum cycle within 1 month after birth. Good quality ejaculates have been obtained via electroejaculation in the Baird's and Malayan tapir and the sperm from Baird's tapir cryopreserved using standard cryodiluents, although more work is needed to optimize these protocols. Given that all 4 species of tapir most likely will continue to be maintained in captivity, effective genetic management is vital for long-term survival. Optimization of assisted reproductive technologies, including sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination, could benefit the genetic management of tapirs. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.
Behavioural changes of two female zoo-held western lowland gorillas, after the introduction of a silverback male [Änderung des Verhaltens von 2 im Zoo gehaltenen Westlichen Flachlandgorilla-Weibchen nach Zusetzen eines Silberrücken-Männchens]
Van Weerd J.H.H.,Artis Royal Zoo |
Knotters M.,Wageningen University |
Van den Brink P.J.,Wageningen University
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2010
Behavioural observations of the two female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) composing an all-female group in Artis Royal Zoo (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) were evaluated. The two females had been observed for one-hr periods over a 166- day period, divided into a period before, and a period after the introduction of a new silverback male. Step intervention analysis showed that in both females locomotion and stereotypic behaviour significantly decreased after the introduction of the silverback. In one of the two females the public interaction also decreased significantly. © 2010.
Hoyer M.,Artis Royal Zoo |
De Jong S.,Artis Royal Zoo |
Verstappen F.,Artis Royal Zoo |
Wolters M.,Artis Royal Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012
Nine Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and three Burchell's zebras (Equus burchellii) were immobilized in a standing position a total of 70 times for minor, nonpainful procedures over a 9-yr period. Standing sedation was successfully obtained with a combination of detomidine and butorphanol on 47 occasions (67.1%). Detomidine i.m. (median 0.10 mg/kg; range: 0.070.21) was administered by dart, followed 10 min later by butorphanol i.m. (median 0.13 mg/kg; range 0.040.24). The dosages were varied depending on the initial demeanor of the animal. On 23 occasions (32.9%), small amounts of etorphine (median 2.5 μg/kg; range 1.112.3 μg/kg) plus acepromazine (median 10 μg/kg; range 4.450 μg/kg) (as in Large AnimalImmobilon) had to be administered i.m. to gain sufficient sedation. In these latter cases, the animals were either excited or known for their aggressive character. The zebras were sufficiently immobilized for the length of most procedures (<45 min) without supplementation. At the end of the procedure, the animals were given atipamezole (2 mg per 1 mg detomidine used) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) to reverse the sedative effects, irrespective of whether etorphine was used or not. Standing sedation, using the combination of the α-2 agonist detomidine and the partial agonistantagonist opioid butorphanol (in some cases supplemented with etorphine + acepromazine), proved to be a very efficacious and safe method to be used in zebras under zoo conditions for short-lasting, nonpainful procedures. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
Hoyer M.J.,Artis Royal Zoo |
van Engeldorp Gastelaars H.M.D.,Leiden University
Zoo Biology | Year: 2014
This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79±8 days to 281±48 days (mean±S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399±3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.