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Benzmuller C.,Articulate Software
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2011

Numerous classical and non-classical logics can be elegantly embedded in Church's simple type theory, also known as classical higher-order logic. Examples include propositional and quantified multimodal logics, intuitionistic logics, logics for security, and logics for spatial reasoning. Furthermore, simple type theory is sufficiently expressive to model combinations of embedded logics and it has a well understood semantics. Off-the-shelf reasoning systems for simple type theory exist that can be uniformly employed for reasoning within and about embedded logics and logics combinations. In this article we focus on combinations of (quantified) epistemic and doxastic logics and study their application for modeling and automating the reasoning of rational agents. We present illustrating example problems and report on experiments with off-the-shelf higher-order automated theorem provers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Reed S.K.,San Diego State University | Reed S.K.,Stanford University | Pease A.,Articulate Software
Cognitive Systems Research | Year: 2015

Psychoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses tools from the information sciences to organize psychological data. This article supports that objective by proposing a framework for constructing cognition ontologies by using WordNet, FrameNet, and the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO). The first section describes the major characteristics of each of these tools. WordNet is a large lexical data base that was begun in the 1980s by George Miller. FrameNet is a database of event schemas based on a theory of frame semantics developed by the linguist Charles Fillmore. SUMO is a formal ontology of concepts expressed in mathematical logic that supports deductive reasoning. The next section discusses the objectives of science ontologies and includes examples for psychoses and for emotion. The article then describes potential applications of cognition ontologies for (1) studying how people organize knowledge, (2) analyzing major theoretical concepts such as abstraction, and (3) formulating premises that can serve as a link between informal taxonomies and formal ontologies. The final section discusses extending cognition ontologies to related domains such as artificial intelligence and cognitive neuroscience. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Pease A.,Articulate Software | Schulz S.,TU Munich
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) is a large, comprehensive ontology stated in higher-order logic. It has co-evolved with a development environment called the Sigma Knowledge Engineering Environment (SigmaKEE). A large and important subset of SUMO can be expressed in first-order logic with equality. SigmaKEE has integrated different reasoning systems in the past, but they either had to be significantly modified, or integrated in a way that multiple queries to the same theory required expensive full re-processing of the full knowledge base. To overcome this problem, to create a simpler system configuration that is easier for users to install and manage, and to integrate a state-of-the-art theorem prover we have now integrated Sigma with the E theorem prover. The E distribution includes a simple server version that loads and indexes the full knowledge base, and supports interactive queries via a simple interface based on text streams. No special modifications to E were necessary for the integration, so SigmaKEE can be easily upgraded to future versions. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Benzmuller C.,Free University of Berlin | Pease A.,Articulate Software
Journal of Web Semantics | Year: 2012

This article addresses the automation of higher-order aspects in expressive ontologies such as the suggested upper merged ontology SUMO. Evidence is provided that modern higher-order automated theorem provers like LEO-II can be fruitfully employed for the task. A particular focus is on embedded formulas (formulas as terms), which are used in SUMO, for example, for modeling temporal, epistemic, or doxastic contexts. This modeling is partly in conflict with SUMO's assumption of a bivalent, classical semantics and it may hence lead to counterintuitive reasoning results with automated theorem provers in practice. A solution is proposed that maps SUMO to quantified multimodal logic which is in turn modeled as a fragment of classical higher-order logic. This way automated higher-order theorem provers can be safely applied for reasoning about modal contexts in SUMO. Our findings are of wider relevance as they analogously apply to other expressive ontologies and knowledge representation formalisms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pease A.,Articulate Software | Benzmuller C.,Free University of Berlin
AI Communications | Year: 2013

Sigma is an open source environment for the development of logical theories. It has been under development and regular release for nearly a decade, and has been the principal environment under which the open source Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) has been created. We discuss its features and evolution, and explain why it is an appropriate environment for the development of expressive ontologies in first and higher order logic. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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