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Islami F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Islami F.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Islami F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Moreira D.M.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Context An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose-response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined.Objective We investigated the association between several measures of tobacco use and PCa mortality (primary outcome) and incidence (secondary outcome) including dose-response association. Evidence acquisition Relevant articles from prospective studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases (through January 21, 2014) and reference lists of relevant articles. Combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods. We also calculated population attributable risk (PAR) for smoking and PCa mortality. Evidence synthesis We included 51 articles in this meta-analysis (11 823 PCa deaths, 50 349 incident cases, and 4 082 606 cohort participants). Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (RR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.31), with little evidence for heterogeneity and publication bias. The number of cigarettes smoked per day had a dose-response association with PCa mortality (p = 0.02; RR for 20 cigarettes per day: 1.20). The PAR for cigarette smoking and PCa deaths in the United States and Europe were 6.7% and 9.5%, respectively, corresponding to >10 000 deaths/year in these two regions. Current cigarette smoking was inversely associated with incident PCa (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), with high heterogeneity in the results. However, in studies completed in 1995 or earlier (considered as completed before the prostate-specific antigen screening era), ever smoking showed a positive association with incident PCa (RR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12) with little heterogeneity.Conclusions Combined evidence from observational studies shows a modest but statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and fatal PCa. Smoking appears to be a modifiable risk factor for PCa death.Patient summary Smoking increases the chance of prostate cancer death. Not smoking prevents this harm and many other tobacco-related diseases. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Valerio M.,University College London | Valerio M.,University of Lausanne | Donaldson I.,University College London | Emberton M.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2015

Context: The current standard for diagnosing prostate cancer in men at risk relies on a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy test that is blind to the location of the cancer. To increase the accuracy of this diagnostic pathway, a software-based magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound (MRI-US) fusion targeted biopsy approach has been proposed. Objective: Our main objective was to compare the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer with software-based MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy against standard biopsy. The two strategies were also compared in terms of detection of all cancers, sampling utility and efficiency, and rate of serious adverse events. The outcomes of different targeted approaches were also compared. Evidence acquisition: We performed a systematic review of PubMed/Medline, Embase (via Ovid), and Cochrane Review databases in December 2013 following the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis statement. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Evidence synthesis: Fourteen papers reporting the outcomes of 15 studies (n = 2293; range: 13-582) were included. We found that MRI-US fusion targeted biopsies detect more clinically significant cancers (median: 33.3% vs 23.6%; range: 13.2-50% vs 4.8 52%) using fewer cores (median: 9.2 vs 37.1) compared with standard biopsy techniques, respectively. Some studies showed a lower detection rate of all cancer (median: 50.5% vs 43.4%; range: 23.782.1% vs 14.3-59%). MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy was able to detect some clinically significant cancers that would have been missed by using only standard biopsy (median: 9.1%; range: 5-16.2%). It was not possible to determine which of the two biopsy approaches led most to serious adverse events because standard and targeted biopsies were performed in the same session. Software-based MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy detected more clinically significant disease than visual targeted biopsy in the only study reporting on this outcome (20.3% vs 15.1%). Conclusions: Software-based MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy seems to detect more clinically significant cancers deploying fewer cores than standard biopsy. Because there was significant study heterogeneity in patient inclusion, definition of significant cancer, and the protocol used to conduct the standard biopsy, these findings need to be confirmed by further large multicentre validating studies. Patient summary: We compared the ability of standard biopsy to diagnose prostate cancer against a novel approach using software to overlay the images from magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound to guide biopsies towards the suspicious areas of the prostate. We found consistent findings showing the superiority of this novel targeted approach, although further high-quality evidence is needed to change current practice. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Baxter C.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Kim J.-H.,University of California at Los Angeles
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2010

Sacral neuromodulation is increasingly used for the treatment of voiding dysfunction, pelvic pain syndromes, and gastrointestinal disorders. While increased use of this technology has led to a greater understanding of its potential as well as its limitations, difficulty persists in identifying the patients that will benefit most. Either of two trial stimulation techniques is performed before placement of a permanent neuromodulator: the monopolar percutaneous nerve evaluation and the tined quadripolar staged trial. The preponderance of recent literature asserts the superior sensitivity of the staged trial over percutaneous nerve evaluation. However, the techniques offer disparate advantages, and other issues, such as cost-effectiveness, remain largely unexplored. The role of sacral neuromodulation will continue to expand as physicians and patients become increasingly aware of its therapeutic potential. Widespread adoption of this clinically superior technique will most rapidly help the greatest number of patients. © 2010 The Author(s).


Friedlander J.I.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Shorter B.,Long Island University | Moldwin R.M.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology
BJU International | Year: 2012

Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles. Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others. Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, may play an important role in patient management. © 2011 BJU International.


Moldwin R.M.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Fariello J.Y.,Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2013

Myofascial trigger points (MTrP), or muscle "contraction knots," of the pelvic floor may be identified in as many as 85 % of patients suffering from urological, colorectal and gynecological pelvic pain syndromes; and can be responsible for some, if not all, symptoms related to these syndromes. Identification and conservative treatment of MTrPs in these populations has often been associated with impressive clinical improvements. In refractory cases, more "aggressive" therapy with varied trigger point needling techniques, including dry needling, anesthetic injections, or onabotulinumtoxinA injections, may be used, in combination with conservative therapies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Levey H.R.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Kutlu O.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | Bivalacqua T.J.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2012

Priapism is defined as a prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation. This is a poorly understood disease process with little information on the pathophysiology of this erectile disorder. Complications from this disorder are devastating due to the irreversible erectile damage and resultant erectile dysfunction (ED). Stuttering priapism, though relatively rare, affects a high prevalence of men with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and presents a challenging problem with guidelines for treatment lacking or resulting in permanent ED. The mechanisms involved in the development of priapism in this cohort are poorly characterized; therefore, medical management of priapism represents a therapeutic challenge to urologists. Additional research is warranted, so we can effectively target treatments for these patients with prevention as the goal. This review gives an introduction to stuttering priapism and its clinical significance, specifically with regards to the patient with SCD. Additionally, the proposed mechanisms behind its pathophysiology and a summary of the current and future targets for medical management are discussed. © 2012 AJA, SIMM &SJTU. All rights reserved.


Schwartz M.J.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Kavoussi L.R.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology
BJU International | Year: 2010

Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-RPLND) was first introduced in 1992, initially as a staging procedure. • With advances in instrumentation and laparoscopic techniques, as well as improved understanding of laparoscopic anatomy, L-RPLND has developed to duplicate open RPLND. • Unlike the relatively rapid adoption of laparoscopy for other applications including nephrectomy and prostatectomy, L-RPLND has been slow to be universally accepted. • The limited numbers of patients requiring RPLND and technical challenges in performing the dissection have undoubtedly contributed to its delayed reception. • This review will present available data on this technique and discuss issues potentially inhibiting acceptance by traditional surgeons. © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.


Kreshover J.E.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Richstone L.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Kavoussi L.R.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology
Journal of Endourology | Year: 2013

Objectives: There is lack of consensus in the Urology community regarding surveillance after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), particularly for patients with stage I tumors. The purpose of this article is to characterize the rate of recurrence after partial nephrectomy in a low risk cohort. Methods: Data were collected on all laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed at a single institution from January 2006 through May 2011. Patients without at least 1 year of follow-up information were excluded from examination. Patients were stratified based on the pathologic tumor stage at the time of partial nephrectomy. Patients with stage I (a and b) tumors were then examined for recurrence. Results: A total of 639 patients underwent LPN during the time period. Of this, 360 patients had stage T1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (302 with pT1a and 58 with pT1b) and met research criteria. There were 8 recurrences (2.2%) within this cohort (Table 1). All of the tumors were of clear cell histology and none had Furhman grade 1 histology. Only one of these patients had a positive margin at the time of partial nephrectomy and all patients had negative biopsy of the tumor resection bed. A majority of the recurrences occurred locally in the ipsilateral kidney or retroperitoneum. Most of the recurrences occurred within 1-2 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Approximately 2% of patients who underwent LPN for RCC with resultant low risk, stage I tumor pathology developed metastasis. There were no recurrences in nonclear cell pathologies and no recurrences with Furhman grade 1 or tumors smaller than 3 cm. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Firoozi F.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2011

The use of synthetic mesh for the management of pelvic organ prolapse has been embroiled in a contentious debate over the past decade, with only more partisanship among physicians strictly against its use versus those pelvic surgeons who believe it to be a useful tool in their armamentarium. At the heart of the controversy lies the concern, by its detractors, for complications related to mesh use outweighing the as yet not rigorously tested benefit of augmenting repairs with mesh. This article discusses, in detail, the current literature supporting the use of mesh in the management of pelvic organ prolapse repair. The rising concern for complications, both simple and complex, will be addressed. This review aims to narrow the divide between physicians and to address their discordant beliefs by objectively reporting the most up-to-date data on biologic and synthetic mesh use in pelvic organ prolapse repair. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Goldenberg E.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | Gilbert B.R.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2012

Imaging of the genitourinary tract is essential in the workup of the majority of the conditions seen daily by urologists. The use of ultrasound in the office provides a safe, low cost, and efficient way for the clinician to evaluate the patient in real time. Ultrasound can allow for bedside diagnosis in many conditions and assist in treatment planning. This chapter covers the major applications of office ultrasound for the urologist as well as discusses future applications of ultrasound for the office setting. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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