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Napoli, Italy

Rogato A.,Institute of Genetics and Biophysics | Rogato A.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | D'Apuzzo E.,Institute of Genetics and Biophysics | D'Apuzzo E.,University of Naples Federico II | And 9 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Plants respond to changes of nutrient availability in the soil by modulating their root system developmental plan. This response is mediated by systemic changes of the nutritional status and/or by local perception of specific signals. The effect of nitrate on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root development represents a paradigm of these responses, and nitrate transporters are involved both in local and systemic control. Ammonium (NH4 +) represents an important nitrogen (N) source for plants, although toxicity symptoms are often associated with high NH4 + concentration when this is present as the only N source. The reason for these effects is still controversial, and mechanisms associating ammonium supply and plant developmental programs are completely unknown. We determined in Lotus japonicus the range of ammonium concentration that significantly inhibits the elongation of primary and lateral roots without affecting the biomass of the shoot. The comparison of the growth phenotypes in different N conditions indicated the specificity of the ammonium effect, suggesting that this was not mediated by assimilatory negative feedback mechanisms. In the range of inhibitory NH4 + conditions, only the LjAMT1;3 gene, among the members of the LjAMT1 family, showed a strong increased transcription that was reflected by an enlarged topology of expression. Remarkably, the short-root phenotype was phenocopied in transgenic lines by LjAMT1;3 overexpression independently of ammonium supply, and the same phenotype was not induced by another AMT1 member. These data describe a new plant mechanism to cope with environmental changes, giving preliminary information on putative actors involved in this specific ammonium-induced response. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

D'Apuzzo E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Valkov V.T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Parlati A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Omrane S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2015

We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

The present invention relates to a new group of pesticides consisting of inactivated microorganisms containing double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA), corresponding to receptor genes coupled with G proteins (GPCR) whose functioning is vital for phytophagous invertebrates (insects, mites and molluscs) or for infesting or in any case harmful organisms for the health of human beings and domestic animals, and to a method for the preparation of said microorganisms.

Rogato A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Valkov V.T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Alves L.M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Apone F.,Arterra Bioscience Srl | And 2 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2016

G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins involved in various signalling pathways by perceiving many extracellular signals and transducing them to heterotrimeric G proteins, which further transduce these signals to intracellular downstream effectors. GCR1 is the only reliable plant candidate as a member of the GPCRs superfamily. In the legume/rhizobia symbiotic interaction, G proteins are involved in signalling pathways controlling different steps of the nodulation program. In order to investigate the putative hierarchic role played by GCR1 in these symbiotic pathways we identified and characterized the Lotus japonicus gene encoding the seven transmembrane GCR1 protein. The detailed molecular and topological analyses of LjGCR1 expression patterns that are presented suggest a possible involvement in the early steps of nodule organogenesis. Furthermore, phenotypic analyses of independent transgenic RNAi lines, showing a significant LjGCR1 expression down regulation, suggest an epistatic action in the control of molecular markers of nodulation pathways, although no macroscopic symbiotic phenotypes could be revealed. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Tito A.,Arterra Bioscience Srl | Carola A.,Arterra Bioscience Srl | Bimonte M.,Arterra Bioscience Srl | Barbulova A.,Arterra Bioscience Srl | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2011

Synopsis Heavy metals can cause several genotoxic effects on cells, including oxidative stress, DNA sequence breakage and protein modification. Among the body organs, skin is certainly the most exposed to heavy metal stress and thus the most damaged by the toxic effects that these chemicals cause. Moreover, heavy metals, in particular nickel, can induce the over-expression of collagenases (enzymes responsible for collagen degradation), leading to weakening of the skin extracellular matrix. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to protect their cells from heavy metal toxicity, including the synthesis of metal chelating proteins and peptides, such as metallothioneins and phytochelatins (PC), which capture the metals and prevent the damages on the cellular structures. To protect human skin cells from heavy metal toxicity, we developed a new cosmetic active ingredient from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) cultured stem cells. This product, besides its high content of antioxidant compounds, contained PC, effective in the protection of skin cells towards heavy metal toxicity. We have demonstrated that this new product preserves nuclear DNA integrity from heavy metal damages, by inducing genes responsible for DNA repair and protection, and neutralizes the effect of heavy metals on collagen degradation, by inhibiting collagenase expression and inducing the synthesis of new collagen. © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. Source

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