News Article | May 12, 2017
NASA and the European Space Agency are not exactly pursuing a lander mission together. This was recently revealed by a NASA spokesperson to Fox News, following news from last month that the two space agencies were joining forces for a joint lander mission to Jupiter moon Europa when 2025 comes along. Dubbed the Joint Europa Mission, the proposal was revealed on April 24 by Michel Blanc of the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in Toulouse, France. At the yearly European Geosciences Union meeting in Austria, he suggested the two agencies could work together to design and mount the mission for launching in the mid-2020s. “The whole idea is that if we think exploring Europa for life is important, it should be an international adventure,” said Blanc, pointing to the “ultimate goal” of getting to the lunar surface and looking for signs of life. “An independent fringe researcher presented a paper … that suggested maybe NASA and ESA could work together. It is not the case at all,” he told Fox, clarifying that the submarine is not part of any official mission yet. While there is a prototype design, it’s still a long way from being molded into a funded mission, the NASA rep said, adding that the speculated partnership could be an exciting way to seek out life on Europa if ever it happens. Europa, which is among the giant planet’s 67 moons, has a liquid ocean hidden beneath an icy crust estimated to be up to 15 miles thick. This crust protects the water from the planet’s strong radiation belts, strengthening claims that it could potentially host life in our solar system. At present, researchers are working on the autonomous submarine ARTEMIS, a 2,800-pound vessel for exploring the dark waters underneath the ice of Europa. The bot has been demonstrating great capability and promise, but deploying it on Europa is not expected to happen very soon. Jupiter’s radiation is a challenge - the lander could only make it for 20 days on Europan surface even while housed in a radiation vault. This makes it necessary to accomplish all the needed science in less than a month. Contamination is another issue, where the spacecraft should be sterilized to prevent tainting the surface with earthly microbes. But above all, it’s about human technologies’ ability to detect the biosignatures of life there. “Unfortunately, we don’t have a Star Trek-style tricorder that we can just point at the surface!” said Europa mission scientist Cynthia Phillips, working on a lander concept at NASA. A mission to fly by the icy Europa world, called the Europa Clipper mission, is scheduled for launch in 2020. Here, the spacecraft is planned to fly by the moon up to 45 times to image the surface at high resolution, as well as collect data about lunar composition and its icy shell and interior structure. However, President Donald Trump's federal budget blueprint for 2018, released on March 16, would ax the proposed mission to send a life-seeking lander on the surface of the ocean-harboring Jupiter moon. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | May 7, 2017
When president Trump released his budget proposal earlier this year, space enthusiasts were dismayed to learn that it didn't include funding for NASA's mission to place a lander on Europa. Although it is just one of Jupiter's 67 moons, Europa is unique in that it is thought to have an ocean of liquid water under the icy, red-veined crust that covers its surface, which makes it the best candidate in the solar system for hosting alien life. But all hope is not lost for the subsurface exploration of Europa—just last week, NASA and the European Space Agency announced a joint mission proposal for a new Europa lander. This is particularly good news for the folks at Stone Aerospace, who have spent the last few years developing ARTEMIS, an autonomous submarine that is pioneering the technology that they hope will one day be used to explore Europa's ocean. In 2015, ARTEMIS was given its first field test off the coast of Antarctica and the results of these test runs were presented at NASA's astrobiology conference last week. By all accounts, the mission was a huge success. The submarine developed by Stone as part of a multi-million-dollar NASA grant is nearly 14 feet long, weighs over 2,800 pounds, and is capable of traveling a little over 3 miles on its own before returning and docking itself at its pickup point. Obviously, such a large craft would be prohibitive for any space mission to Europa. ARTEMIS was made from off-the-shelf parts and meant to test autonomous navigation and sample retrieval systems. The actual sub used on Europa would have to be entirely custom made to lower its bulk. The systems on ARTEMIS were designed with the particularly challenging environment of Europa in mind. The moon has no atmosphere, which means using parachutes to land a craft on its surface is a no-go. It has a surface temperature that never rises above -260 F and is covered with an icy crust of uncertain thickness (although NASA estimates it to be between 10 and 15 miles deep). Moreover, no one will know the chemical composition of the ocean beneath the icy shell until the Europa Clipper mission makes its flybys in the late 2020s. The first technical problem faced by a lander trying to get to Europa's liquid ocean is how to get through the thick layer of ice that covers the moon's surface. To this end, Stone is developing an autonomous cryobot called SPINDLE. The cryobot will basically be a large, nuclear-powered soldering iron that will house the submarine and melt a borehole through the ice to the ocean below using powerful lasers. Thus far, an early prototype of the SPINDLE cryobot called VALKYRIE has made two successful trips to test the penetration technology on an Alaskan glacier. According to Evan Clark, a field roboticist at Stone, getting permission to drop a nuclear reactor into a glacier in Alaska is "basically impossible" so the VALKYRIE bot made use of a 5 kilowatt laser to melt through the ice. "There's only one way to energetically to get through the ice shell of Europa and that's nuclear," Clark said at the NASA astrobiology conference. "You may get your energy from nuclear, but how are you going to use that? There's contact melt, using it to run a drill, or as the SPINDLE project has discovered, you can just fire the laser directly into the ice." So far, the maximum penetration rate achieved by Stone's cryobot is about 72 feet of ice per hour, but figuring out how to penetrate Europa's ice shelll is just half the problem. Given the freezing temperatures on the moon's surface, the borehole will continuously reseal behind the SPINDLE as it melts its way deeper into the crust. Electromagnetic waves don't propagate well through ice, which would make retrieving the valuable data from the alien-hunting submarine being towed by a cryobot impossible. To circumvent this issue, Kristof Richmond, the ARTEMIS project manager, said a cryobot on Europa would likely deposit radio receiver buoys into the ice from its rear as it makes it descent. Although the receivers will become encased in ice, they will be close enough together to allow radio signals to hop from receiver to receiver until they reach the surface, at which point they can be transmitted to an orbiter and sent back to Earth. Once the cryobot ice penetrator reaches liquid water, it will deploy an autonomous submarine. The sub must be autonomous because the lag time between Jupiter and Earth (between 30 minutes and an hour) and the difficulties of communicating with a craft submerged in water. So Richmond and his colleagues at Stone are developing a sophisticated autonomous guidance system which will allow the craft to safely navigate the ocean beneath the crust while also taking samples from the ice and surrounding water. Since radio waves do not propagate well underwater, an autonomous submarine on Europa will not have recourse to standard radio communications or GPS satellites. To get around these restraints, the Stone team turned to a navigation system that uses a gyroscope to determine the submarine's direction and a Doppler velocity log to measure the craft's speed relative to the ice ceiling. This navigation method works well enough, but due to drift in the ocean small navigation errors add up over the course of the journey so that the submarine can only return to within about a kilometer of its starting point—a small hole in a massive sheet of ice. At this point, the second part of the ARTEMIS navigation system kicks in: an acoustic beacon on the ARTEMIS docking station which allows the craft to navigate within 20-30 feet of the docking station. It will be able to see a white light bar attacked to the docking station, even in the pitch black of the under-ice ocean, and use a machine vision algorithm to navigate itself to the light. For now, the ARTEMIS team is still working through the data from the Antarctic mission which ended in December 2015. There are still a number of kinks to work out in the development of a future space-borne submarine, but they've got some time to figure it out. The most recent Europa lander mission only made it to the initial planning phase, so even if NASA and the European Space Agency go forward with their plans for a joint mission to the surface, it's unlikely that the mission will launch before the late 2020s. And Richmond hopes that their submarine will be along for the ride. "We are trying to push to have all these things at basic levels of development and technology readiness," Richmond told me. "Then when we find all the missing information from the Europa flyby and lander missions, we can pull the trigger and be ready to go." Subscribe to Science Solved It, Motherboard's new show about the greatest mysteries that were solved by science.
Zaugg E.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Edwards M.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Wilmhoff B.,First RF |
Westbrook L.,Air Force Research Lab
IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings | Year: 2011
A SAR system with a single aperture that simultaneously transmits at a high and low frequency provides the distinct advantages of each individual frequency band, and the added benefit of having a collocated aperture. In this paper, the design of the multi-band SlimSAR and the unique multi-frequency antenna are presented. © 2011 IEEE.
Shen C.F.,NRC Biotechnology Research Institute |
Lanthier S.,NRC Biotechnology Research Institute |
Jacob D.,NRC Biotechnology Research Institute |
Montes J.,NRC Biotechnology Research Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012
Rabies virus is an important causative agent of disease resulting in an acute infection of the nervous system and death. Although curable if treated in a timely manner, rabies remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, and the indigenous threat of rabies continues in developed countries because of wildlife reservoirs. Control of rabies in wildlife is still an important challenge for governmental authorities.There are a number of rabies vaccines commercially available for control of wildlife rabies infection. However, the vaccines currently distributed to wildlife do not effectively immunize all at-risk species, particularly skunks. A replication competent recombinant adenovirus expressing rabies glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) has shown the most promising results in laboratory trials. The adenovirus vectored vaccine is manufactured using HEK 293 cells.This study describes the successful scale-up of AdRG1.3 adenovirus production from 1 to 500. L and the manufacturing of large quantities of bulk material required for field trials to demonstrate efficacy of this new candidate vaccine. The production process was streamlined by eliminating a medium replacement step prior to infection and the culture titer was increased by over 2 fold through optimization of cell culture medium. These improvements produced a more robust and cost-effective process that facilitates industrialization and commercialization. Over 17,000. L of AdRG1.3 adenovirus cultures were manufactured to support extensive field trials. AdRG1.3 adenovirus is formulated and packaged into baits by Artemis Technologies Inc. using proprietary technology. Field trials of AdRG1.3 rabies vaccine baits have been conducted in several Canadian provinces including Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. The results from field trials over the period 2006-2009 demonstrated superiority of the new vaccine over other licensed vaccines in immunizing wild animals that were previously difficult to vaccinate. © 2011 .
Zaugg E.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Edwards M.,ARTEMIS, Inc.
IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings | Year: 2012
For multi-pass SAR, a number of applications require precise duplication of the aircraft path. This paper presents the Dragonfly system, which provides a real-time display of the desired flight line from the point of view of the aircraft location. The pilot, following a path on Dragonfly, can easily repeat flight lines and circles with a good degree of precision. We also examine the experimental performance of the Dragonfly system over a series of repeated flight lines while collecting SAR data. The theoretical effects of sub-optimal flight line repetition on multi-pass SAR performance are evaluated for coherent change detection (CCD) and multi-pass interferometry (InSAR) and compared to experimental results. © 2012 IEEE.
Zaugg E.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Edwards M.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Margulis A.,ARTEMIS, Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010
The SlimSAR is a small, low-cost, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and represents a new advancement in high-performance SAR. ARTEMIS employed a unique design methodology in designing the SlimSAR that exploits previous developments. The system is designed to be smaller, lighter, and more flexible while consuming less power than typical SAR systems. The system consists of an L-band core and frequency block converters and is very suitable for use on a number of small UAS's. Both linear-frequency-modulated continuous-wave (LFM-CW) and pulsed modes have been tested. The LFM-CW operation achieves high signal-to-noise ratio while transmitting with less peak power than a comparable pulsed system. The flexible control software allows us to change the radar parameters in flight. The system has a built-in high quality GPS/IMU motion measurement solution and can also be packaged with a small data link and a gimbal for high frequency antennas. Multi-frequency SAR provides day and night imaging through smoke, dust, rain, and clouds with the advantages of additional capabilities at different frequencies (i.e. dry ground and foliage penetration at low frequencies, and change detection at high frequencies.). © 2010 SPIE.
Zaugg E.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Edwards M.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Margulis A.,ARTEMIS, Inc.
IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings | Year: 2010
The SlimSAR is a small, low-cost, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and represents a new advancement in high-performance SAR. ARTEMIS employed a unique design methodology that exploits previous developments in designing the Slim-SAR to be smaller, lighter, and more flexible while consuming less power than typical SAR systems. With an L-band core, and frequency block converters, the system is very suitable for use on a number of small UAS's. Both linear-frequency-modulated continuous-wave (LFM-CW), which achieves high signal-to-noise ratio while transmitting with less power, and pulsed mode have been tested. The flexible control software allows us to change the radar parameters in flight. The system has a built-in high quality GPS/IMU motion measurement solution and can also be packaged with a small data link and a gimbal for high frequency antennas. Multi-frequency SAR provides day and night imaging through smoke, dust, rain, and clouds with the advantages of additional capabilites at different frequencies (i.e. dry ground and foliage penetration at low frequencies, and change detection at high frequencies.) © 2010 IEEE.
Zaugg E.C.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Edwards M.C.,ARTEMIS, Inc. |
Bradley J.P.,ARTEMIS, Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012
This paper presents ARTEMIS, Inc.'s approach to development of end-to-end synthetic aperture radar systems for multiple applications and platforms. The flexible design of the radar and the image processing tools facilitates their inclusion in a variety of application-specific end-to-end systems. Any given application comes with certain requirements that must be met in order to achieve success. A concept of operation is defined which states how the technology is used to meet the requirements of the application. This drives the design decisions. Key to adapting our system to multiple applications is the flexible SlimSAR radar system, which is programmable on-the-fly to meet the imaging requirements of a wide range of altitudes, swath-widths, and platform velocities. The processing software can be used for real-time imagery production or post-flight processing. The ground station is adaptable, and the radar controls can be run by an operator on the ground, on-board the aircraft, or even automated as part of the aircraft autopilot controls. System integration takes the whole operation into account, seeking to flawlessly work with data links and on-board data storage, aircraft and payload control systems, mission planning, and image processing and exploitation. Examples of applications are presented including using a small unmanned aircraft at low altitude with a line of sight data link, a long-endurance UAV maritime surveillance mission with on-board processing, and a manned ground moving target indicator application with the radar using multiple receive channels. © 2012 SPIE.
ARTEMIS, Inc. | Date: 2013-09-13
ARTEMIS, Inc. | Date: 2013-05-07
Crude rubber, natural rubber. Gloves for household and gardening purposes; containers for household or kitchen use; brushes for pets; household utensils, namely, graters, sieves, spatulas, strainers, pot and pan scrapers. Footwear, headwear, visors, nightwear, shirts, blouses, pants, jackets, coats, gloves, socks, suits, swimwear, underwear, rain wear. Balloons; balls for games or sports; pet toys; bats and rackets for games; fishing rods; skis; yoga mats.