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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Purpose – The discourse about agriculture within Switzerland’s and Germany’s public is to be compared in order to obtain an idea about the impact of the different agricultural systems. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – After a brief description of agricultural systems and policies in Germany and Switzerland, the discourse among the general public in the two countries in internet newsrooms and message boards is analyzed. The subjects of discussions are compared, and selected sequences are analyzed using objective hermeneutics. Findings – Results indicate that, in Germany, agriculture is largely perceived as a black box where food safety is a crucial issue. Although food safety also is discussed in Switzerland, Swiss discussants focus more on changes that should be implemented in agricultural production and policy systems. Research limitations/implications – The quantitative and qualitative evaluation of newsrooms and message boards reveals important insights, particularly in a comparative setting.Practical implications – A small-structured agriculture may contribute to generate trust in the reliability of food safety among consumers. Originality/value – The discourse on German and Swiss internet platforms on agricultural issues reveals significant differences which shows that such an analysis allows important insights. © 2015 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Alabid J.,De Montfort University | Taki A.,ART
HVAC and R Research | Year: 2014

This article assesses the most common architectural and environmental strategies in Ghadames housing in Libya. Preliminary data were collected through field surveys undertaken in July 2013, the hottest and driest season in Ghadames. The surveys investigated the indoor thermal environment and efficiency of energy use in Ghadames housing. The actual mean vote scale was used to investigate occupants thermal feeling coupled with recording physical environment and also actual measurements of a number of existing houses. Additionally, objective surveys were conducted to (a) verify the subjective data, (b) provide an overall view of the residents life style in the old town, and (c) understand the most significant techniques employed in old dwellings. The subjective survey "questionnaire" distributed among nine new and eight old houses shows that the majority of respondents is satisfied with the number of architectural issues in modern housing design. This general satisfaction excludes the inherited identity of the traditional architecture embedded within the society. On the other hand, occupants are more satisfied with old buildings in regard to indoor environmental conditions, energy consumption, and construction materials. The occupants of old houses expressed their thermal satisfaction with the indoor comfort conditions, but the predicted mean vote, based on measurements and ISO 7730, implied discomfort (hot).The survey also carried out interviews with a number of locals, underlining their personal impressions and preference toward the change of the existing built environment. Findings indicate that, occupants satisfaction and perception toward the built environment have not been achieved in new housing developments of Ghadames owing to the lack of understanding of the sociocultural needs of the local community. In addition, a 3D digital model was created for the old town and imparted a full understanding of the building dynamics and physics, explicating the complexity of the compactness of its urban morphologies. The results also showed subjects were feeling neutral to slightly warm in old buildings even when indoor air temperatures reached 32°C. © 2014 ASHRAE.

Clothier I.M.,ART | Clothier I.M.,Intercreate Research Center Intercreateorg
Technoetic Arts | Year: 2012

The project 'Te Kore Rongo Hungaora'/'Uncontainable Second Nature' is predicated on a bridge between Māori and European cultures. Based on this view, works from art and science were re-contextualized as cultural texts symbolic of belief systems. The project was conceived and curated for exhibitions in Istanbul and Rio de Janeiro. Discipline was not viewed as fixed, but fluid in a transformational environment. Five themes were selected from within European and Māori world-views: cosmologi-cal context, all is energy, life emerged from water, anthropic principle and integrated systems. The selected works addressed more than one of these thematic regions. While aspects of thinking might be shared across a cultural boundary, the agreement is only at the level of summary of view, rather than at the level of detail. This distinction is important in moving human thinking forward to an integrated condition particularly where negotiating hybridity is concerned. Certainly knowledge is advanced in a sense, and cultural bridging can be observed in practice at several New Zealand organizations such as the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences and the Department of Conservation which all employ staff whose position entails observ-ance and care of Māori perspectives on subjects under investigation and study. The connection between the work of Kaumatua (elder) Dr Te Huirangi Waikerepuru and Zoologist Mike Paulin in the exhibitions was semantic rather than computational. Here the function of metaphor in uniting what were previously considered divergent world-views becomes apparent. Myth is often reported as distinctive to a specific culture, however, considering interconnections ignites a more expansive view of culture and consciousness. © 2012 Intellect Ltd Article.

Advanced Refining Technologies LLC introduced the ApART™ Catalyst System for FCC pretreatment. This technology is developed to provide significant increases in HDS conversion while at the same time providing significant upgrading of FCC feedstock quality. The use of tailored ApART™ catalyst systems can optimize the FCC to produce not only high quality feeds to the FCC but also low sulfur products resulting in less impact on downstream hydrotreating. The complexity of combinations of catalyst design and operating conditions for both the FCC feed hydrotreater and the FCC unit continues to present a significant optimization opportunity for refiners to drive the combined operation to maximum product value. Both the hydrotreating catalyst system and the operating strategy for the pretreater are critical to providing the highest quality feed for the FCC. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the NPRA 2011 Annual Meeting (San Antonio, TX 3/21/2011).

Canals L.M.I.,Unilever | Azapagic A.,University of Manchester | Doka G.,Doka Life Cycle Assessment | Jefferies D.,Unilever | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2011

Summary: There is an increasing need for life cycle data for bio-based products, which becomes particularly evident with the recent drive for greenhouse gas reporting and carbon footprinting studies. Meeting this need is challenging given that many bio-products have not yet been studied by life cycle assessment (LCA), and those that have are specific and limited to certain geographic regions. In an attempt to bridge data gaps for bio-based products, LCA practitioners can use either proxy data sets (e.g., use existing environmental data for apples to represent pears) or extrapolated data (e.g., derive new data for pears by modifying data for apples considering pear-specific production characteristics). This article explores the challenges and consequences of using these two approaches. Several case studies are used to illustrate the trade-offs between uncertainty and the ease of application, with carbon footprinting as an example. As shown, the use of proxy data sets is the quickest and easiest solution for bridging data gaps but also has the highest uncertainty. In contrast, data extrapolation methods may require extensive expert knowledge and are thus harder to use but give more robust results in bridging data gaps. They can also provide a sound basis for understanding variability in bio-based product data. If resources (time, budget, and expertise) are limited, the use of averaged proxy data may be an acceptable compromise for initial or screening assessments. Overall, the article highlights the need for further research on the development and validation of different approaches to bridging data gaps for bio-based products. © 2011 by Yale University.

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