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An L.,Nanjing Normal University | Chang S.,Nanjing Normal University | Hu Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Li Y.,Nanjing Normal University | And 6 more authors.
Cryobiology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess modified droplet vitrification (MDV) for the cryopreservation of early developmental mouse embryos. Mouse embryos were equilibrated in holding solution for 3 min followed by immersion in vitrification solution for 30-45 s, and then three embryos per 3-μL vitrification droplet were directly dropped into liquid nitrogen. Vitrified embryos were warmed to examine their developmental potential both in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that MDV vitrified and warmed embryos had a survival rate of 98.1-99.6% (P > 0.05); however, blastocyst development post warming and culture in vitro demonstrated that vitrified 4-celled, 8-celled, 16-celled, morulae, and blastocyst embryos had significant higher developmental potentials (94.7-99.5%) than those from zygotes (9.2%) and 2-celled embryos (85.7%) (P< 0.05). Compared to CryoLoop and CryoTech vitrification, MDV showed similar results with regards to rates of survival, blastocyst development, but with the higher hatching rate (76.1% vs. 64.0-67.3%) (P< 0.05). Cryopreservation by MDV resulted in a similar blastocyst developmental potential in 4-celled and 16 celled embryos from ICR (94.7-99.5%), C57BL/6J (94.7-96.4%), and their crossbred F1 strain (97.9-98.9%) (P > 0.05). After embryo transfer of vitrified ICR embryos from 4-celled, 16-celled, morulae and blastocyst stage, 40.7-43.7% of the embryos developed into live offspring (P > 0.05), but MDV vitrification resulted in the highest birth rate (43.8%) compared to CryoLoop (38.3%) and CryoTech (35.4%) (P < 0.05), when 4-celled mouse embryos were used for vitrification. Our study clearly demonstrated that MDV is the most efficient vitrification to cryopreserve embryos at least 4-celled and advanced stages, which can be used to preserve important mouse genomes from different strains and different developmental stages. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


An L.,Nanjing Normal University | Ling P.P.,Nanjing Normal University | Zhu X.,Nanjing Normal University | Liu Y.,Nanjing Normal University | And 11 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine whether vitrification is an effective method when used for Japanese Black Cattle (Wagyu) in vivo-derived embryos, collected following a superovulation treatment and embryo transfer (MOET) programme. In vivo-derived morula and blastocysts collected on day 7 after artificial insemination, were vitrified using a modified droplet vitrification (MDV) procedure and subsequently warmed for transfer (ET) into synchronized recipients. Fresh embryos, and embryos cryopreserved using a standardized slow freezing procedure (direct thaw/direct transfer, DT) served as ET controls. Two different follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) sources, Folltropin® Canada (FSH BAH, 24 donors) and a brand prepared by the Chinese Academy of Science (FSH CAS, 16 donors), were compared in a series of superovulation outcomes following well-established FSH administration protocols. Following data analysis, the total number of ovulations recorded at the time of embryo flushing (10.5 vs 8.5; p = 0.28) and the total number of transferable embryos (6.2 vs 5.1; p = 0.52) were similar between the two FSH sources. ET for MDV (39.7%, n = 78), DT (35.2%, n = 71) and fresh controls (47.1%, n = 34) resulted in similar pregnancy rates (p > 0.05). When MDV was used, a higher pregnancy rate (42.6%) resulted from the transfer of vitrified morulae, when compared to the DT counterparts (24.3%), (p = 0.05). Transfer of vitrified morulae resulted also in higher pregnancy rate, when compared to the transfer of vitrified blastocysts (42.6% vs. 29.4%; p < 0.05). Transfer of DT blastocysts resulted in higher pregnancy rate than morulae, similarly cryopreserved (47.1% vs. 24.3%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, MDV is an effective alternative methodology for cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos. This study gives also indication that, compared to vitrified blastocysts, MDV of morula stage embryos results in higher pregnancy rates following warming and transfer into synchronized recipients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


An L.,Nanjing Normal University | Chang S.,Nanjing Normal University | Hu Y.,Nanjing Normal University | Li Y.,Nanjing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Cryobiology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess modified droplet vitrification (MDV) for the cryopreservation of early developmental mouse embryos. Mouse embryos were equilibrated in holding solution for 3. min followed by immersion in vitrification solution for 30-45. s, and then three embryos per 3-μL vitrification droplet were directly dropped into liquid nitrogen. Vitrified embryos were warmed to examine their developmental potential both in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that MDV vitrified and warmed embryos had a survival rate of 98.1-99.6% (P >. 0.05); however, blastocyst development post warming and culture in vitro demonstrated that vitrified 4-celled, 8-celled, 16-celled, morulae, and blastocyst embryos had significant higher developmental potentials (94.7-99.5%) than those from zygotes (9.2%) and 2-celled embryos (85.7%) (P <. 0.05). Compared to CryoLoop and CryoTech vitrification, MDV showed similar results with regards to rates of survival, blastocyst development, but with the higher hatching rate (76.1% vs. 64.0-67.3%) (P <. 0.05). Cryopreservation by MDV resulted in a similar blastocyst developmental potential in 4-celled and 16 celled embryos from ICR (94.7-99.5%), C57BL/6J (94.7-96.4%), and their crossbred F1 strain (97.9-98.9%) (P >. 0.05). After embryo transfer of vitrified ICR embryos from 4-celled, 16-celled, morulae and blastocyst stage, 40.7-43.7% of the embryos developed into live offspring (P >. 0.05), but MDV vitrification resulted in the highest birth rate (43.8%) compared to CryoLoop (38.3%) and CryoTech (35.4%) (P <. 0.05), when 4-celled mouse embryos were used for vitrification. Our study clearly demonstrated that MDV is the most efficient vitrification to cryopreserve embryos at least 4-celled and advanced stages, which can be used to preserve important mouse genomes from different strains and different developmental stages. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | ARSIAL, Renova Life, Inc., Lannuo Biotechnologies Wuxi Inc. and Nanjing Normal University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cryobiology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess modified droplet vitrification (MDV) for the cryopreservation of early developmental mouse embryos. Mouse embryos were equilibrated in holding solution for 3 min followed by immersion in vitrification solution for 30-45 s, and then three embryos per 3-L vitrification droplet were directly dropped into liquid nitrogen. Vitrified embryos were warmed to examine their developmental potential both in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that MDV vitrified and warmed embryos had a survival rate of 98.1-99.6% (P>0.05); however, blastocyst development post warming and culture in vitro demonstrated that vitrified 4-celled, 8-celled, 16-celled, morulae, and blastocyst embryos had significant higher developmental potentials (94.7-99.5%) than those from zygotes (9.2%) and 2-celled embryos (85.7%) (P<0.05). Compared to CryoLoop and CryoTech vitrification, MDV showed similar results with regards to rates of survival, blastocyst development, but with the higher hatching rate (76.1% vs. 64.0-67.3%) (P<0.05). Cryopreservation by MDV resulted in a similar blastocyst developmental potential in 4-celled and 16 celled embryos from ICR (94.7-99.5%), C57BL/6J (94.7-96.4%), and their crossbred F1 strain (97.9-98.9%) (P>0.05). After embryo transfer of vitrified ICR embryos from 4-celled, 16-celled, morulae and blastocyst stage, 40.7-43.7% of the embryos developed into live offspring (P>0.05), but MDV vitrification resulted in the highest birth rate (43.8%) compared to CryoLoop (38.3%) and CryoTech (35.4%) (P<0.05), when 4-celled mouse embryos were used for vitrification. Our study clearly demonstrated that MDV is the most efficient vitrification to cryopreserve embryos at least 4-celled and advanced stages, which can be used to preserve important mouse genomes from different strains and different developmental stages.


PubMed | ARSIAL, Lannuo Biotechnologies Wuxi Inc. and Nanjing Normal University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

We investigated the effects of 5-end truncated CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease (tru-RGN, 17/18 nucleotides) on genome editing capability in NIH/3T3 cells, and its efficiencies on generating Factor VII (FVII) gene-knockout (KO) mice. In cultured cells, RGNs on-target editing activity had been varied when gRNAs was truncated, higher at Site Two (tF7-2 vs. F7-2, 49.5 vs. 30.1%) while lower in other two sites (Site One, tF7-1 vs.F7-1, 12.1 vs. 23.6%; Site Three, tF7-3 vs.F7-3, 7.7 vs 10.9%) (P<0.05). Out of 15 predicated off-target sites, tru-RGNs showed significantly decreased frequencies at 5 sites. By microinjecting tru-RGN RNAs into zygotes, FVII KO mice were generated with higher efficiency at Site Two (80.1 vs. 35.8%) and Site One (55.0 vs 3.7%) (P<0.05), but not at Site three (39.4 vs 27.8%) (P>0.05) when compared with standard RGN controls. Knockout FVII mice demonstrated a delayed prothrombin time and decreased plasma FVII expression. Our study first demonstrates that truncated gRNAs to 18 complementary nucleotides and Cas9 nucleases, can effectively generate FVII gene KO mice with a significantly higher efficiency in a site-dependent manner. In addition, the off-target frequency was much lower in KO mice than in cell lines via RGN expression vector-mediated genome editing.


PubMed | ARSIAL, Renova Life, Inc., Instituto Superiore Of Sanita, Lannuo Biotechnologies Wuxi Inc. and Nanjing Normal University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine whether vitrification is an effective method when used for Japanese Black Cattle (Wagyu) in vivo-derived embryos, collected following a superovulation treatment and embryo transfer (MOET) programme. In vivo-derived morula and blastocysts collected on day 7 after artificial insemination, were vitrified using a modified droplet vitrification (MDV) procedure and subsequently warmed for transfer (ET) into synchronized recipients. Fresh embryos, and embryos cryopreserved using a standardized slow freezing procedure (direct thaw/direct transfer, DT) served as ET controls. Two different follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) sources, Folltropin() Canada (FSH BAH, 24 donors) and a brand prepared by the Chinese Academy of Science (FSH CAS, 16 donors), were compared in a series of superovulation outcomes following well-established FSH administration protocols. Following data analysis, the total number of ovulations recorded at the time of embryo flushing (10.5 vs 8.5; p = 0.28) and the total number of transferable embryos (6.2 vs 5.1; p = 0.52) were similar between the two FSH sources. ET for MDV (39.7%, n = 78), DT (35.2%, n = 71) and fresh controls (47.1%, n = 34) resulted in similar pregnancy rates (p > 0.05). When MDV was used, a higher pregnancy rate (42.6%) resulted from the transfer of vitrified morulae, when compared to the DT counterparts (24.3%), (p = 0.05). Transfer of vitrified morulae resulted also in higher pregnancy rate, when compared to the transfer of vitrified blastocysts (42.6% vs. 29.4%; p < 0.05). Transfer of DT blastocysts resulted in higher pregnancy rate than morulae, similarly cryopreserved (47.1% vs. 24.3%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, MDV is an effective alternative methodology for cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos. This study gives also indication that, compared to vitrified blastocysts, MDV of morula stage embryos results in higher pregnancy rates following warming and transfer into synchronized recipients.


Ancora G.,ENEA | Crino P.,ENEA | Tavazza R.,ENEA | Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The in vitro propagation of the 'Romanesco' globe artichoke clone C3 and its rapid diffusion in the productive system have led to a significant erosion of local genetic resources and a loss of diversity. With the aim of recovering and characterising landrace diversity for future breeding activities and/or germplasm conservation, 19 clones derived from plants cultivated in traditional areas of the Latium region were collected, in vitro propagated and analysed using a combination of morphological traits (UPOV descriptors) and DNA markers (AFLP and ISSR). Three clones characterized by positive values for traits of agronomical interest have been selected within the traditional 'Romanesco' landrace typologies such as 'Campagnano', C3, and 'Castellamare'. Request for the release of these clones has been submitted to the Italian National Variety Register. The three clones, named Michelangelo, Donatello, and Raffaello, are characterized by differences referred to morphological traits such as date of maturity, head size, production, receptacle thickness, and molecular patterns. © ISHS.


Cristofori V.,University of Tuscia | Bizzarri S.,ARSIAL | Silvestri C.,University of Tuscia | Muleo R.,University of Tuscia | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In the Latium Region (Italy), hazelnut crop production is almost exclusively obtained from the cultivar 'Tonda Gentile Romana'. This is a paradigmatic case in Italy, where a narrow genetic background is at the base for a nut crop. Therefore, the vulnerability to biotic and abiotic stresses for hazelnut orchards could be extremely high. With the aim to extend the hazelnut genetic basis in Latium, during the year 2000 a collection field was established in a vocated hazelnut-growing area, at "Le Cese" surrounding the basin of Vico Lake, in Viterbo province. The collection consists of 48 cultivars managed with standard orchard management techniques. Vegetative and productive performances of each cultivar were observed over the period of 2008-2011. The cultivars 'Hynich', 'Pallagrossa' and 'Montebello' showed a very low suckers emission, suggesting their use as rootstocks no-suckers emitter. The higher yield at the first cropping years were found in 'Camponica', 'Nociara', 'San Giovanni', 'Barrettona' and 'Carrello', whereas the higher percent kernel was observed in the cultivars 'Tombul', 'Cosford' and 'Daviana'. High variability among cultivars was also observed for the characters vigour, yield efficiency and blooming. Data reported in this work will be useful to select cultivars suitable for a varietal turnover in the older hazelnut orchards of Latium Region that need to be renewed.


Campanile G.,University of Naples Federico II | Vecchio D.,University of Naples Federico II | Neglia G.,University of Naples Federico II | Bella A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

The use of sexed semen technology in buffaloes is nowadays becoming more and more accepted by farmers, to overcome the burden of unwanted male calves with related costs and to more efficiently improve production and genetic gain. The aim of this study was to verify the coupling of some variables on the efficiency of pregnancy outcome after deposition of sexed semen through AI. Pluriparous buffaloes from two different farms (N = 152) were screened, selected, and subjected to Ovsynch protocol for AI using nonsexed and sexed semen from four tested bulls. AI was performed in two distinct periods of the year: September to October and January to February. Neither farms nor bulls had a significant effect on pregnancy rates pooled from the two periods. The process for sexing sperm cells did not affect pregnancy rates at 28 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 44/73 (60.2%) and 50/79 (63.2%), P = 0.70, and at 45 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 33/73 (45.2%) and 33/79 (49.3%), P = 0.60. Pregnancy rate at 28 days after AI during the transitional period of January to February was higher when compared with September to October, respectively 47/67 (70.1%) versus 47/85 (55.2%), P = 0.06. When the same pregnant animals were checked at Day 45 after AI, the difference disappeared between the two periods, because of a higher embryonic mortality, respectively 32/67 (47.7%) versus 40/85 (47.0%), P = 0.93. Hematic progesterone concentration at Day 10 after AI did not distinguish animals pregnant at Day 28 that would or would not maintain pregnancy until Day 45 (P = 0.21). On the contrary, when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI, the difference in progesterone concentration between pregnant animals that would maintain their pregnancy until Day 45 was significant for both pooled (P = 0.00) and nonsexed (P = 0.00) and sexed semen (P = 0.09). A similar trend was reported when blood samples were taken at Day 25, being highly significant for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen (P = 0.00). Hematic progesterone concentration between the two periods of the year was highly significant for pregnant animals at 28 days from AI when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen, respectively P = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.06, and for pregnant animals at Day 45 for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen, respectively P = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.01. From these results, it can be stated that hematic progesterone concentration measurement since Day 20 after AI can be predictive of possible pregnancy maintenance until Day 45. Furthermore, the transitional period of January to February, although characterized by a higher pregnancy outcome when compared with September to October, suffers from a higher late embryonic mortality as evidenced by a significant different hematic progesterone concentration between the two periods at Day 20 after AI. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Campanile G.,University of Naples Federico II | Gasparrini B.,University of Naples Federico II | Vecchio D.,University of Naples Federico II | Neglia G.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy rates when compared with conventional nonsexed semen. Deposition of sexed semen into the body of the uterus, however, increased pregnancy rates significantly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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