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Asella, Ethiopia

Sileshi A.,Arsi University | Tenna A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Feyissa M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Shibeshi W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Background: Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing medication records of patients receiving ceftriaxone during hospitalization at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital between February 1 and June 30, 2014. Drug use evaluation was conducted to determine whether ceftriaxone was being used appropriately based on six criteria namely indication for use, dose, frequency of administration, duration of treatment, drug-drug interaction, culture and sensitivity test. The evaluation was made as per the protocol developed from current treatment guidelines. Results: The total of 314 records of patients receiving ceftriaxone was reviewed. The prescribing rate of ceftriaxone was found to be very high (58 % point prevalence). Ceftriaxone use was empiric in 274 (87.3 %) cases. The most common indication for ceftriaxone use was pneumonia; observed in 110 (35.0 %) cases. The most common daily dosage, frequency of administration and duration of treatment with ceftriaxone were 2 g (88.9 %), twice-daily (98.4 %) and 8-14 days (46.2 %), respectively. Inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was observed in most of cases (87.9 %), the greatest proportion of which was attributed to inappropriate frequency of administration (80.3 %), followed by absence of culture and sensitivity test (53.2 %). Conclusion: This study revealed that the inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was very high in the medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. This may lead to emergence of resistant pathogens which in turn lead to treatment failure and increased cost of therapy. Therefore, adherence to current evidence-based guidelines is recommended. © 2016 Sileshi et al.

Min J.-S.,Food Research Center | Khan M.I.,Seoul National University | Khan M.I.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Lee S.-O.,Seoul National University | And 5 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2016

This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4°C and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. © 2016 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Recources.

Khan M.I.,Seoul National University | Khan M.I.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Min J.-S.,Food Research Center | Lee S.-O.,Seoul National University | And 5 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2015

Background: Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Methods: Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. Results: The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Conclusions: Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content. © 2015 Khan et al.

Befekadu C.,Arsi University | Yunus A.,Arsi University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intercropping alfalfa with oat on growth rate, total forage dry matter yield and nitrogen yield. Alfalfa cultivars with or without oat was grown on finely prepared seed beds. The experimental seed was planted on 12 m2 plot (4 m long and 3 m wide), consisted of 10 rows with intra-row spacing of 0.3m. The plots were laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications per treatment. Data on biomass yield and other yield related traits was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure for RCBD experiments using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS computer software packages. The result of this experiment has shown that the total forage dry matter yield harvested from plots containing a mixture of alfalfa and oat was higher (P<0.05) than other plots containing pure stands of alfalfa and oat. The analysis also indicated that the dry matter yield per area of land was much greater for oat grown with alfalfa than oat grown without alfalfa. In this trial, the leaf to stem ratio of alfalfa and oat plant grown alone was statistically similar (P>0.05) to those grown in a mixture. The average plant height of.alfalfa and oat plant grown in separate plot was not differed (P>0.05) from those grown in a mixture on same plot under this experiment. The chemical analysis result has implied that the dry matter content of each plant (alfalfa and oat) grown in a mixture was higher than those plant grown separately. Likewise, the crude protein content of oat grown with alfalfa on the same plots was improved as compared to those oats plants grown alone in separate plots which could be achieved from the symbiotic relationship between the two plants grown in mixture. In general, the higher quality forage obtained from oat plants grown with alfalfa on the same plots, may be an important consideration for livestock producers. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Lee M.,Arsi University | Regu M.,Arsi University | Regu M.,Ewha Womans University | Seleshe S.,Arsi University
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2015

There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4-5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization. © 2015 The Authors.

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