Asella, Ethiopia
Asella, Ethiopia

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Belay A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Belay A.,Arsi University | Haki G.D.,University of Botswana | Birringer M.,FH Fulda | And 4 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Rheology and botanical origin of Ethiopian monofloral honeys were investigated using harmonized method of melissopalynology and HAAKE VT 500 over a temperature range of 25–45 °C, respectively. The percent dominance of monofloral honeys ranged from 59.8% (Croton macrostachyus) to 90.3% (Schefflera abyssinica). Botanical origin and geographical location of honeys were categorized on principal component analysis (PCA) of pollen data. The PCA graph showed that honeys were divided into two separate groups or three sub groups, based on their close appearance in the plot. The highest viscosity value was observed in Eucalyptus globulus honey and the lowest in Vernonia amygdalina. Shear stress versus shear rate linearity indicated that all the monofloral honeys exhibited Newtonian behavior. The effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey followed the Arrhenius relationship. The activation energy ranged from 60,042.05 (Eucalyptus globulus) to 9858.741 kJ/mol (Vernonia amygdalina). Viscosity of honey was found to be time independent. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Aklilu S.,Adama Science and Technology University | Abebie B.,Arsi University | Wogari D.,CIMMYT Ethiopia | Tcklcwold A.,CIMMYT Ethiopia
Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to evaluate degree of morphological diversity of 49 pepper accessions at Melkassa to compare the field performance of yield and quality of berries during the year 2014, in a 7x7 simple lattice design. Data on plant morphology and berry characteristics were collected and subjected to analysis of variance to determine the diversity that exists among the local materials. The analysis of variance revealed significant (P<0.05) differences in morphological and berry characters among the tested accessions indicating the existence of good genetic variability. From the principal component analysis five axis were obtained that accounted for about 75% of the variability. Most of growth and fruiting characters were associated with the first components, while the second and third components were associated with plant, berry and flowering characters. From the hierarchical similarity analysis six clusters were obtained with the similarity values ranging from 0.27 to 1.43. Inter-cluster DJ values ranged from 19 to 159 in which clustcr II and VI showed higher level of inter-cluster distances among themselves and with the rest of the clusters. Narrow clustcr distances were obtained between clusters I, III and V which showed high similarity of accessions within these clusters. The average mean performance for a particular character indicated that cluster I can be a source of genes for earliness and strong stem and good number of branches. Accessions in cluster II can be specifically useful for improving berry length and plant height. However, for improving berry yield using accessions in cluster III and V as a parent, is advantageous. Therefore crossing accessions in clusters I, III, IV and V with either or both clusters II and VI is useful in future breeding programs. © 2016 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).


Khan M.I.,Seoul National University | Khan M.I.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Min J.-S.,Food Research Center | Lee S.-O.,Seoul National University | And 5 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2015

Background: Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Methods: Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. Results: The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Conclusions: Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content. © 2015 Khan et al.


Min J.-S.,Food Research Center | Khan M.I.,Seoul National University | Khan M.I.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Lee S.-O.,Seoul National University | And 5 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2016

This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4°C and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. © 2016 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Recources.


Dedefo K.,Arsi University | Derero A.,Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute | Tesfaye Y.,Hawassa University | Muriuki J.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2016

Most tree nurseries in Ethiopia overemphasize mass seedling production to the expense of seedling quality. The study aimed at evaluating nursery characteristics and tree seed procurement approaches, and how these influenced seedling quality in eight purposively selected Woredas of Oromia region. A total of 169 respondents from government and non-government organizations, farmer nursery owners and development/extension agents and officers were interviewed. Seed quality was explored through assessing the seed supply sources, the type of seed source and mother tree selection, and the practices in seed physiological quality assessments. Our results revealed that over half (62.5%) of the nurseries were government owned, while 20% were NGO-run nurseries and the remaining 17.5% were owned by farmers. Nine challenges constraining tree seedling production and leading to underperformance were identified, with the two major problems shared by all nursery types being lack of sufficient material and germplasm input and using seeds of low or unknown quality. Informal seed dealers were the main source of seeds (87.6%) for all the nursery types. On the other hand, nursery operator’s own seed collection was from any free-standing trees either planted or retained as these sources were easily accessible. Seeds were, on average, collected from few mother trees, implying a high probability of sourcing seeds of narrow genetic diversity. Analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences in seedling germination among the different seed procurement approaches within the same seed type. The seeds obtained from formal seed dealers had the highest germination rates in both hard-coated (87.3%) and soft-coated (79.7%) seeds. Our findings suggest that there is need to improve the seed procurement and the seedling supply system through quality assurance of the seeds used in seedling production. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Lee M.,Arsi University | Regu M.,Arsi University | Regu M.,Ewha Womans University | Seleshe S.,Arsi University
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2015

There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4-5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization. © 2015 The Authors.


Mohammed J.,Arsi University | Seleshi S.,Arsi University | Nega F.,Arsi University | Lee M.,Arsi University
Journal of Ethnic Foods | Year: 2016

Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Barley producers in Ethiopia have given it the name gebs ye ehil nigus, which means barley is the king of crops, due to its suitability for preparing many of the known Ethiopians traditional dishes. Various barley foods and drinks play an important role in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Ethiopians, but detailed descriptions related to their preparation and their socioeconomic and cultural roles are not well-recorded and documented like most of the Ethiopian cultural foods. Foods such as ingera, kita, dabo, kolo, genfo, beso, chuko, shamet, tihlo, kinch, and shorba are the most commonly known traditional Ethiopian barley-based foods. These products are prepared from either roasted whole grain, raw and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley-based traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the consumers. For example, genfo is served to breast-feeding mothers with the belief that it enhances breast milk production and serves as a good substitute for breast milk. Beso is claimed to be a remedy for gastritis, while genfo and kinche are used to heal broken bones and fractures. Considering the Western consumers' trend on functional foods and health benefits of barley, Ethiopian traditional barley-based foods are worth studying as functional foods, which can be appealing to Western consumers. © 2016 Korea Food Research Institute


Sileshi A.,Arsi University | Tenna A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Feyissa M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Shibeshi W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Background: Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing medication records of patients receiving ceftriaxone during hospitalization at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital between February 1 and June 30, 2014. Drug use evaluation was conducted to determine whether ceftriaxone was being used appropriately based on six criteria namely indication for use, dose, frequency of administration, duration of treatment, drug-drug interaction, culture and sensitivity test. The evaluation was made as per the protocol developed from current treatment guidelines. Results: The total of 314 records of patients receiving ceftriaxone was reviewed. The prescribing rate of ceftriaxone was found to be very high (58 % point prevalence). Ceftriaxone use was empiric in 274 (87.3 %) cases. The most common indication for ceftriaxone use was pneumonia; observed in 110 (35.0 %) cases. The most common daily dosage, frequency of administration and duration of treatment with ceftriaxone were 2 g (88.9 %), twice-daily (98.4 %) and 8-14 days (46.2 %), respectively. Inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was observed in most of cases (87.9 %), the greatest proportion of which was attributed to inappropriate frequency of administration (80.3 %), followed by absence of culture and sensitivity test (53.2 %). Conclusion: This study revealed that the inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was very high in the medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. This may lead to emergence of resistant pathogens which in turn lead to treatment failure and increased cost of therapy. Therefore, adherence to current evidence-based guidelines is recommended. © 2016 Sileshi et al.


Befekadu C.,Arsi University | Yunus A.,Arsi University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intercropping alfalfa with oat on growth rate, total forage dry matter yield and nitrogen yield. Alfalfa cultivars with or without oat was grown on finely prepared seed beds. The experimental seed was planted on 12 m2 plot (4 m long and 3 m wide), consisted of 10 rows with intra-row spacing of 0.3m. The plots were laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications per treatment. Data on biomass yield and other yield related traits was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure for RCBD experiments using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS computer software packages. The result of this experiment has shown that the total forage dry matter yield harvested from plots containing a mixture of alfalfa and oat was higher (P<0.05) than other plots containing pure stands of alfalfa and oat. The analysis also indicated that the dry matter yield per area of land was much greater for oat grown with alfalfa than oat grown without alfalfa. In this trial, the leaf to stem ratio of alfalfa and oat plant grown alone was statistically similar (P>0.05) to those grown in a mixture. The average plant height of.alfalfa and oat plant grown in separate plot was not differed (P>0.05) from those grown in a mixture on same plot under this experiment. The chemical analysis result has implied that the dry matter content of each plant (alfalfa and oat) grown in a mixture was higher than those plant grown separately. Likewise, the crude protein content of oat grown with alfalfa on the same plots was improved as compared to those oats plants grown alone in separate plots which could be achieved from the symbiotic relationship between the two plants grown in mixture. In general, the higher quality forage obtained from oat plants grown with alfalfa on the same plots, may be an important consideration for livestock producers. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Arsi University and Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Type: | Journal: BMC pharmacology & toxicology | Year: 2016

Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics due to its high antibacterial potency, wide spectrum of activity and low potential for toxicity. However, the global trend shows misuse of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital.A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing medication records of patients receiving ceftriaxone during hospitalization at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital between February 1 and June 30, 2014. Drug use evaluation was conducted to determine whether ceftriaxone was being used appropriately based on six criteria namely indication for use, dose, frequency of administration, duration of treatment, drug-drug interaction, culture and sensitivity test. The evaluation was made as per the protocol developed from current treatment guidelines.The total of 314 records of patients receiving ceftriaxone was reviewed. The prescribing rate of ceftriaxone was found to be very high (58% point prevalence). Ceftriaxone use was empiric in 274 (87.3%) cases. The most common indication for ceftriaxone use was pneumonia; observed in 110 (35.0%) cases. The most common daily dosage, frequency of administration and duration of treatment with ceftriaxone were 2g (88.9%), twice-daily (98.4%) and 8-14 days (46.2%), respectively. Inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was observed in most of cases (87.9%), the greatest proportion of which was attributed to inappropriate frequency of administration (80.3%), followed by absence of culture and sensitivity test (53.2%).This study revealed that the inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was very high in the medical and emergency wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. This may lead to emergence of resistant pathogens which in turn lead to treatment failure and increased cost of therapy. Therefore, adherence to current evidence-based guidelines is recommended.

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