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Vienna, Austria

Hvid H.,Copenhagen University | Hvid H.,Novo Nordisk AS | Fels J.J.,Novo Nordisk AS | Kirk R.K.,Novo Nordisk AS | And 4 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology

High doses of insulin and the insulin analog AspB10 have been reported to increase mammary tumor incidence in female rats likely via receptor-mediated mechanisms, possibly involving enhanced IGF-1 receptor activation. However, insulin and IGF-1 receptor functionality and intracellular signaling in the rat mammary gland in vivo is essentially unexplored. The authors investigated the effect of a single subcutaneous dose of 600 nmol/kg human insulin or IGF-1 on Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat liver, colon, and mammary gland. Rat tissues were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry by phosphorylation-specific antibodies. Insulin as well as IGF-1 caused Akt phosphorylation in mammary epithelial cells, with myoepithelial and basal epithelial cells being most sensitive. IGF-1 caused stronger Akt phosphorylation than insulin in mammary gland epithelial cells. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not influenced by insulin or IGF-1. Rather, in liver and mammary gland P-ERK1/2 appeared to correlate with estrous cycling, supporting that ERK1/2 has important physiological roles in these two organs. In short, these findings supported that the rat mammary gland epithelium expresses functional insulin and IGF-1 receptors and that phosphorylation of Akt as well as ERK1/2 may be of value in understanding the effects of exogenous insulin in the rat mammary gland and colon. © 2011 by The Author(s). Source

Knudsen L.,Hagedorn Research Institute | Knudsen L.,University of Southern Denmark | Hansen B.F.,Novo Nordisk AS | Jensen P.,Novo Nordisk AS | And 7 more authors.

Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1-10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints (3H-thymidine incorporation), and not on metabolic endpoints (14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells). The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity (3H-thymidine incorporation) and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B'29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed. © 2012 Knudsen et al. Source

Rouha H.,Arsanis Biosciences | Badarau A.,Arsanis Biosciences | Visram Z.C.,Arsanis Biosciences | Battles M.B.,Adimab Inc. | And 25 more authors.

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen associated with high mortality. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability of antibiotics to counteract bacterial cytotoxins involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus call for novel therapeutic approaches, such as passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The complexity of staphylococcal pathogenesis and past failures with single mAb products represent considerable barriers for antibody-based therapeutics. Over the past few years, efforts have focused on neutralizing α-hemolysin. Recent findings suggest that the concerted actions of several cytotoxins, including the bi-component leukocidins play important roles in staphylococcal pathogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to isolate mAbs that bind to multiple cytolysins by employing high diversity human IgG1 libraries presented on the surface of yeast cells. Here we describe cross-reactive antibodies with picomolar affinity for α-hemolysin and 4 different bi-component leukocidins that share only ∼26% overall amino acid sequence identity. The molecular basis of cross-reactivity is the recognition of a conformational epitope shared by α-hemolysin and F-components of gamma-hemolysin (HlgAB and HlgCB), LukED and LukSF (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin). The amino acids predicted to form the epitope are conserved and known to be important for cytotoxic activity. We found that a single cross-reactive antibody prevented lysis of human phagocytes, epithelial and red blood cells induced by α-hemolysin and leukocidins in vitro, and therefore had superior effectiveness compared to α-hemolysin specific antibodies to protect from the combined cytolytic effect of secreted S. aureus toxins. Such mAb afforded high levels of protection in murine models of pneumonia and sepsis. © Arsanis Biosciences GmbH. Source

Oleksiewicz M.B.,Arsanis Biosciences | Nagy G.,Arsanis Biosciences | Nagy E.,Arsanis Biosciences
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Today's medicine has to deal with the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, and is beginning to be confronted with pan-resistant microbes. This worsening inadequacy of the antibiotics concept, which has ruled infectious medicine in the last six decades creates an increasing unmet medical need that can be addressed by passive immunization. While past experience from the pre-antibiotic era with serum therapy was in many cases encouraging, antibacterial monoclonal antibodies have so far suffered high attrition rates in the clinic, generally from lack of efficacy. Yet, we believe that recent developments in a number of areas such as infectious disease pathogenesis research, translational medicine, mAb engineering, mAb manufacturing and rapid bedside diagnostics are converging to make the medium-term future permissive for antibacterial mAb development. Here, we review antibacterial mAb-based approaches that are or were in clinical development, and may potentially act as paradigms with regards to molecular targets, antibody formats and mode-of-action, pre-clinical validation and selection of most relevant patient populations, in order to increase the likelihood of successful product development in this field. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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