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Bānswāra, India

Singh M.,MGNREGA | Urmila,ARS
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2012

The available estimates indicate that nearly 174 mha, representing 53% of the total geographical area of the country are subjected to some form of soil erosion and land degradation. The watershed management of sound principles of soil and water conservation is the only way to reversing this trend of land degradation (Ahuja, R. 2005). Keeping this in view effort has been made to prepare a watershed management plan for Kesharpura village, district Pratapgarh taking the economical and financial parameters into consideration in order to achieve maximum output, from the resources available. This watershed is typical of the Aravalli foot hills of southern Rajasthan having the problems of overgrazing and denudation of hill slopes leading to severe soil erosion, improper crop management, insufficient utilization of rainwater etc. Keeping this is view, out of total area of the watershed of 630 ha., 590 ha., land is proposed to be put under soil and water conservation techniques. The whole area was divided into 12 blocks and each block was considered as a separate unit. The proposed technology comprises of Puerto Rico terrace in 97.18 ha., stone wall terrace in 66.16 ha. and a afforestation in 85.30 ha. To increase the crop productivity per unit area improved crop management technology suitable for the area has been proposed. Crop yields are expected to increase by nearly two times with the proposed package of practices and soil and water conservation measures. These measures will not only increase crop production per unit area but will greatly help in improving socioeconomic status of the tribal farmers. Taking into consideration the investment life of the project as 10 years the benefit cost ratio works out to be 1.64:1 and 1.31:1 as per financial and economical evaluation, respectively. Copyright © EM International. Source

Kumar V.,Florida International University | Guerrero F.M.,Florida International University | Tansel B.,Florida International University | Savabi M.R.,ARS
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Containerized plant production represents an extremely intensive agricultural practice with large amounts of moisture and fertilizer application. Hydro-physical characteristics such as water infiltration, texture and structure, particle size distribution affect the quality of the media used in containerized agricultural systems and the water availability to plants. Water retention characteristics depend on particle size distribution as well as the composition of the media used. Materials with coarser particles allow faster percolation of water and also retain relatively higher amounts moisture per unit weight due to higher porosity, while draining faster due to smaller surface area per unit weight. Faster drainage can result into airflow through coarser materials causing the media to dry. The objectives of this study were to characterize the selected hydro-physical properties of plant growth media that are commonly used by nurseries in South Florida. Characterization of the plant growing media can allow modeling of soil-water interactions and development of best management practices for more efficient use of water and agrochemicals by nurseries. Experimental analyses were performed to characterize the plant growth mixtures in terms of particle size distribution and hydraulic conductivity using three different methods (i.e., constant head permeability, falling head permeability test, and tension infiltrometer test). The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures measured by constant head method ranged from 0.029 to 0.042. cm/s (104-151. cm/h) and by falling head method ranged from 0.078 to 0.112. cm/s (281-403. cm/h). The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures measured by tension infiltrometer ranged from 0.02 to 0.34. cm/h. Understanding water retention and permeation characteristics of the plant growing media could assist development of best management practices (BMP) for containerized agricultural systems for efficient management of irrigation water and agrochemical use. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Babu S.R.,ARS | Subrahmanyam B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2010

Proteinase inhibitors (AsPIs) with high activity against serine proteinases were purified from seeds of the tree legume, Acacia senegal by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column and evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera larvae by in vitro and in vivo methods. The molecular weight of AsPIs was found to be approximately 19.58±1.00 and 21.23±1.00kDa for PI and 18.16±1.00kDa for PII on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The AsPIs (5μg/ml) inhibited approximately 70% of midgut trypsin and 61% of elastase-like chymotrypsin. In vitro studies showed that AsPIs have remarkable inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes followed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The IC50 of AsPIs for midgut trypsin was 0.1μg/ml and for chymotrypsin was 2.0μg/ml. The inhibition of gut proteinase enzymes was of the non-competitive type. In larval feeding studies, AsPIs were found to retard growth and development of H. armigera and also affects the fecundity of the pest. The results advocate the use of AsPIs in transgenic technology to develop plant resistance to H. armigera. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Patil B.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ravikumar R.L.,G.K.V.K | Bhat J.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Soregaon C.D.,ARS
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

A molecular map of chickpea was constructed using F9:F10 recombinant inbred lines from an intraspecific cross between Fusarium wilt susceptible (JG 62) and resistant (WR 315) genotypes. A total of 23 markers with LOD scores of > 3.0 were mapped on the recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Twenty sequence tagged microsatellites (STMSs) and three amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) covered 300.2 cM in five linkage groups at an average inter-marker distance of 13 cM. Early and late wilting due to Fusarium infection was recorded in RILs at 30 and 60 DAS, respectively. There was a significant variation among RILs for wilt resistance for both early and late wilting. QTLs associated with early (30 days after sowing (DAS)) and late (60 DAS) wilting are located on LG II. The flanking markers for these QTLs were the same as those of previous reports. Five STMS markers located on LG II of reference map (interspecific) were mapped on LG II of the present map (intraspecific) with minor changes in the order of markers indicating the conservation of these genomic regions across the Cicer species. Source

Chavez E.,University of Florida | Chavez E.,ESPOL Polytechnic University | He Z.L.,University of Florida | Stoffella P.J.,University of Florida | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible >> water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P < 0.01) for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble Cd was significantly correlated with 0.01 M HCl- (r = 0.99, P < 0.01) or Mehlich 3- extractable Cd (r = 0.97, P < 0.01). These results indicate that acid-soluble Cd fraction is an important part of available Cd pool. Since approximately 60% of Cd in the cacao-growing soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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