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Ganss C.,Justus Liebig University | Ganss C.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Lussi A.,University of Bern | Sommer N.,Justus Liebig University | And 2 more authors.
Caries Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-erosive effects of different fluoride compounds and one tin compound in the context of the complex pathohistology of dentine erosion, with particular emphasis on the role of the organic portion. Samples were subjected to two experiments including erosive acid attacks (0.05 molar citric acid, pH 2.3; 6 × 2 min/day) and applications (6 × 2 min/day) of the following test solutions: SnCl 2 (815 ppm Sn), NaF (250 ppm F), SnF2 (250 ppm F, 809 ppm Sn), amine fluoride (AmF, 250 ppm F), AmF/NaF (250 ppm F), and AmF/SnF 2 (250 ppm F, 409 ppm Sn). The demineralised organic fraction was enzymatically removed either at the end of the experiment (experiment 1) or continuously throughout the experiment (experiment 2). Tissue loss was determined profilometrically after 10 experimental days. In experiment 1, the highest erosive tissue loss was found in the control group (erosion only); the AmF- and NaF-containing solutions reduced tissue loss by about 60%, reductions for SnCl2, AmF/SnF2, and SnF2 were 52, 74 and 89%, respectively. In experiment 2, loss values generally were significantly higher, and the differences between the test solutions were much more distinct. Reduction of tissue loss was between 12 and 34% for the AmF- and NaF-containing preparations, and 11, 67 and 78% for SnCl2, AmF/SnF2, and SnF2, respectively. Stannous fluoride-containing solutions revealed promising anti-erosive effects in dentine. The strikingly different outcomes in the two experiments suggest reconsidering current methodologies for investigating anti-erosive strategies in dentine. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG. Source


Javed F.,Karolinska Institutet | Chotai M.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Mehmood A.,Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center | Almas K.,University of Connecticut
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology | Year: 2010

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the oral mucosal disorders associated with habitual gutka consumption. Methods: Databases were searched from 1956 to June 2009 using the following terms: "gutka," "gutkha," "ghutka," "guttkha," "smokeless tobacco," "areca nut," "betel nut," "slaked lime," "dental," "oral," "periodontal," "inflammation," "submucous fibrosis," "carcinoma," and "cancer." The eligibility criteria included: human and experimental studies, use of control subjects, and articles published in English. Unpublished data were not sought. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Results: Twelve studies were included. Three studies associated gutka consumption with periodontal inflammation (ORs 1.64 [CI 1.2-2.1], 2.20 [CI 1.1-4.9], and 3.56 [CI 1.9-5.5]). Five studies showed a direct relationship between gutka usage and oral submucous fibrosis (ORs 1.65 [CI 1.2-2.3], 2.33 [CI 1.9-4.5], 2.98 [CI 1.5-3.9], 3.56 [CI 1.3-4.7], and 5.08 [CI 3.7-6.4]). An increased frequency of gutka usage was associated with malignant transformations in oral submucous fibrosis by 2 studies (ORs 4.59 [CI 2-5.6] and 18 [CI 5.8-61.6]). Two studies showed an extension of oral submucous fibrosis into the hypopharynx and esophagus in gutka users (ORs 4.59 [CI 2-5.6] and 33 [CI 2.2-46.6]). Conclusions: Habitual gutka usage is associated with severe oral mucosal disorders, and the consequences may extend beyond the oral cavity. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Javed F.,King Saud University | Bello Correra F.O.,Federal University of Pelotas | Chotai M.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Tappuni A.R.,Queen Mary, University of London | Almas K.,University of Connecticut
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Aim: The adverse effects of areca nut (AN) chewing habit on oral health have been reported. However, the hazards related to the habit are not restricted to the oral cavity but they can also jeopardise the systemic health. Since no review reporting the harmful effects of AN chewing on systemic health is yet available, the aim of the present study was to review the systemic conditions associated with AN usage. Methods: To address the focused question "What are the deleterious effects of AN usage on systemic health?", the MEDLINE PubMed databases were explored from 1966 up to and including May 2010. The eligibility criteria included: human studies, individuals using AN, use of controls, and articles published in English. Hand-searching was also performed. Unpublished data was excluded. Results: The review included 28 articles. Seven studies associated AN chewing with cardiovascular disorders and three studies related the habit with cerebrovascular disorders. Eight studies related AN chewing with obesity, hyperglycaemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five studies related AN chewing with the development of hepatic disorders. Two studies associated the chewing habit with oesophageal inflammation and fibrosis. Three studies associated AN chewing with respiratory discomfort. Renal disorders were related with the chewing abuse in two studies. Two studies showed an adverse effect of AN chewing on birth outcome. Conclusions: AN chewing adversely affects systemic health by damaging the vital organs. © 2010 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source


Georgakopoulou E.A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Achtari M.D.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Achtaris M.,Major Hellenic Army dArmy Corps | Foukas P.G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kotsinas A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic oral inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. According to reports, 1-2 of OLP patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the long run. While World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as a potentially malignant disorder, it is still a matter of debate which mechanisms drive OLP to such a condition. The current hypothesis connecting OLP and OSCC is that chronic inflammation results in crucial DNA damage which over time results in cancer development. Initial studies investigating the OLP and OSCC link were mainly retrospective clinical studies. Over the past years, several amount of information has accumulated, mainly from molecular studies on the OLP malignant potential. This article is a critical review of whether OLP has a malignant potential and, therefore, represents a model of preneoplastic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Eleni A. Georgakopoulou et al. Source


Maiorana C.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Grossi G.B.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Garramone R.A.,Arrail Dental Clinic | Manfredini R.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | Santoro F.,Arrail Dental Clinic
Journal of Dentistry | Year: 2013

Objectives To test the in vivo effects of an ultrasonic dental scaler on various implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) models. Methods 12 consecutive patients with ICDs had continuous both electrocardiogram monitoring and device interrogation to detect interferences during the use of an ultrasonic dental scaler. Results No interferences were detected by any ICD. Evaluation of the electrocardiograms for each patient failed to show any abnormalities in pacing during testing. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the routinary clinic use of piezoelectric dental scalers do not interfere with the functioning of any of the tested ICDs. Clinical significance Ultrasonic dental scalers have been suspected of electromagnetic interference (EMI) with the normal functioning of ICDs and the use of this type of equipment for patients with these devices has been controversial. This is the first in vivo study to investigate EMI of ICD activity during the operation with ultrasonic dental scaler. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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