ARPAT

Pisa, Italy
Pisa, Italy
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Bianco F.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes | Bianco F.,iPOOL srl | Teti L.,iPOOL srl | Licitra G.,ARPAT | Cerchiai M.,ARPAT
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2017

A loudspeaker can be seen as a device coupling different acoustic, mechanic and electric systems by a series of impedance adaptations. A simple model can thus allow the determination of the acoustic impedance seen by the speaker membrane from measuring the electric impedance of the device. Given a certain number of assumption on mechanical modes and on the strictly electric components, this approach in principle is valid through a wide frequency range. Applying this method with a loudspeaker or a similar device allows to perform acoustic impedance measurements, as shown by Ahadi and Bakhtiar in a previous work. Unfortunately, when trying to apply straightforwardly this method, many difficulties arise. In this paper, using a FEM simulation of a loudspeaker in specific mounting conditions, critical aspects are highlighted to improve the range of application of the measurement technique. Moreover, the role of the speaker’ s geometry is separately analysed and possible methods to overcome the limitations of the measuring method are provided. Further developments will be necessary to deal with time varying and nonlinear properties of the speaker. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Licitra G.,ARPAT | Palazzuoli D.,ARPAT | Ascari E.,CNR Institute of Acoustics and Sensors Orso Mario Corbino
Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future | Year: 2016

The information required to perform an accurate exposure estimation are several, such as: geographical and topographical indications, population distribution, source properties. Years of research have improved and validated different numerical methods, which provide accurate results in controlled conditions, i.e. when all of the above-described information are available. Since the computational speed is increasing by means of parallel systems, it will be possible to develop new more accurate methods. They will be theoretically able to manage more inputs, obtaining more thorough analysis. Actually, it is not unlikely that some of the data required are missing or their accuracy is not suited. This leads to approximations, increasing accordingly the level of uncertainties in the exposure evaluation. Epidemiologists are accustomed to adapt their studies to the amount of available data, nonetheless their results depend onto which extent the exposure evaluation is accurate. In the paper limits and advantages of noise mapping due to END will be discussed in the perspective of the epidemiological studies and their needs and compared also to other approaches used in specific epidemiological studies. It will be also presented the new annex II of END, the work developed in CNOSSOS-EU, as well as some ideas for possible future improvements. © 2016, German Acoustical Society (DEGA). All rights reserved.


Fossi M.C.,University of Siena | Casini S.,University of Siena | Caliani I.,University of Siena | Panti C.,University of Siena | And 7 more authors.
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2012

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy has been developed and is being implemented, with the objective to deliver "Good Environmental Status" by 2020. A pragmatic way forward has been achieved through the development of 11 "qualitative descriptors". In an attempt to identify gaps in MSFD, regarding the data on large marine vertebrates, the SETAC - Italian Branch organised a workshop in Siena (IT). Particular attention was paid to the qualitative descriptors 8 (contaminants and pollution effects) and 10 (marine litter). The specific remit was to discuss the potential use of large marine vertebrates (from large pelagic fish, sea turtles, sea birds and cetaceans) in determining the environmental status of pelagic marine ecosystems. During the workshop it emerged that large pelagic fish may be especially useful for monitoring short- to medium-term changes in pelagic ecosystems, while cetaceans provided a more integrated view over the long-term. A theme that strongly emerged was the broad recognition that biomarkers offer real potential for the determination of good ecological status detecting the "undesirable biological effects" (indicator for descriptor 8). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Cervo R.,University of Florence | Bruschini C.,University of Florence | Cappa F.,University of Florence | Meconcelli S.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Di Benedetto F.,University of Florence | D'Acapito F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Fornaciai G.,ARPAT | Innocenti M.,University of Florence | And 4 more authors.
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals | Year: 2010

An X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of the Fe local environment in natural amethyst (a variety of α-quartz, SiO2) has been carried out. Room temperature measurements were performed at the Fe K-edge (7,112 eV), at both the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) regions. Experimental results were then compared with DFT calculations. XANES experimental spectra suggest Fe to occur mainly in the trivalent state, although a fraction of Fe2+ is identified. EXAFS spectra, on the other hand, reveal an unusual short distance for the first coordination shell: = 1.78(2) Å, the coordination number being 2.7(5). These results allow to establish that Fe replaces Si in its tetrahedral site, and that numerous local distortions are occurring as a consequence of the presence of Fe3+ variably compensated by protons and/or alkaline ions, or uncompensated. The formal valence of Fe, on the basis of both experimental and DFT structural features, can be either 4+ or 3+. Taking into account the XANES evidences, we suggest that Fe mainly occurs in the trivalent state, compensated by protons, and that a minor fraction of Fe4+ is stabilised by the favourable local structural arrangement. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


PubMed | ARPAT and University of Florence
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of experimental biology | Year: 2014

Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers.


Licitra G.,Technical Directorate | Gallo P.,ARPAT | Rossi E.,University of Pisa | Brambilla G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2011

The European directive 2002/49/EC requires noise maps as step before designing action plans. Due to economical constraints a priority scale of mitigation actions is needed and, for this purpose, the Italian legislation established a methodology based on the exceeding of the limits and the amount of population exposed to such exceeding. This paper proposes a new method, named Multi Annoyance Building Prioritisation Score (MABPS), aimed to take into account the annoyance due to the exposure from different sources (multiexposure). The proposed method is a modification of the Scottish Building Prioritisation Score (BPS), shortly described in the paper too. To test the MABPS method, the case study of strategic noise map of Pisa was considered. All the noise levels from airport, roads, railways and industries were calculated and limits and advantages of the method are discussed by comparing the MABPS index with the Italian and Scottish ones, also in the perspective of a standardized procedure. The results show significant differences between MABPS and the other methods, especially because the former considers a larger number of buildings to be included into the action plan and, at this stage, no weightings are applied to take account of the building use. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Paoli L.,University of Siena | Paoli L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Corsini A.,ARPAT | Bigagli V.,ARPAT | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Licitra G.,ARPAT | Cerchiai M.,ARPAT | Ascari E.,CNR Institute of Acoustics and Sensors Orso Mario Corbino | Teti L.,University of Siena
Proceedings of Forum Acusticum | Year: 2011

Member States are drawing up action plans to mitigate noise exposure according requirements of the Environmental Noise Directive: however, low frequency noise is hard to be tackled especially because noise barriers are often not efictive. In fact, some studies demonstrated that the installation of a barrier decreases the low frequencies masking efiect due to presence of high ones. Therefore, annoyance and complaints may rise despite having spent money for mitigation. There should be methods allowing noise action planners to take into account this efiect so that they can estimate with spectral detail the mitigation available solutions, included barrier installation. In this paper we compare data in terms of A-weighted levels and C-weighted levels to estimate low frequency relevance. Difierent methods capable of mapping frequency detail of road trafic noise are tested: in particular we compare data from interim method NMPB 96, Dutch RMR method and the ones available from a customized procedure, which starts from Statistical Pass By regional data and use the ISO 9613 standard to propagate noise. Moreover, difierent scenarios will be analysed according those selected by Joint Research Centre to evaluate noise on a complex scenario (freefield, barriers, buildings, screened buildings) so that a large variety of trafic and environment conditions are tested. Using difierence between methods it will be possible to assess level of uncertainty of mapping procedure.


Licitra G.,ARPAT | Licitra G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ascari E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Brambilla G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2012

Most of the European Member States have produced strategic noise maps according to the requirements issued by the 2002/49/EC directive (END) and after the first run the results are available on the web. A straightforward comparison of estimated noise exposure data in each country is meaningless because, unfortunately, different methods have been used to determine the reported data. This paper focuses on possible variations in people exposure estimate due to the method used to calculate noise levels at receivers and to assign levels to buildings, as well as to associate population to each building. Results show that the choice of the method to estimate noise exposure of inhabitants is crucial for planning effective noise mitigation actions. A simple method, considering only the noise level at the grid point closest to the building, is here proposed and it seems suitable to inform and to be understood by the public, even thought it is not appropriate for epidemiological studies or definition of action plans. Because inaccurate estimations of noise exposure may lead to misleading allocation of economical resources in action plans, the objective of the estimated exposure should be clear at the time of the choice of the calculation method in order to select the most appropriate one. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.

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