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Marina di Pisa, Italy

Licitra G.,Technical Directorate | Gallo P.,ARPAT | Rossi E.,University of Pisa | Brambilla G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2011

The European directive 2002/49/EC requires noise maps as step before designing action plans. Due to economical constraints a priority scale of mitigation actions is needed and, for this purpose, the Italian legislation established a methodology based on the exceeding of the limits and the amount of population exposed to such exceeding. This paper proposes a new method, named Multi Annoyance Building Prioritisation Score (MABPS), aimed to take into account the annoyance due to the exposure from different sources (multiexposure). The proposed method is a modification of the Scottish Building Prioritisation Score (BPS), shortly described in the paper too. To test the MABPS method, the case study of strategic noise map of Pisa was considered. All the noise levels from airport, roads, railways and industries were calculated and limits and advantages of the method are discussed by comparing the MABPS index with the Italian and Scottish ones, also in the perspective of a standardized procedure. The results show significant differences between MABPS and the other methods, especially because the former considers a larger number of buildings to be included into the action plan and, at this stage, no weightings are applied to take account of the building use. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Fossi M.C.,University of Siena | Casini S.,University of Siena | Caliani I.,University of Siena | Panti C.,University of Siena | And 7 more authors.
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2012

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy has been developed and is being implemented, with the objective to deliver "Good Environmental Status" by 2020. A pragmatic way forward has been achieved through the development of 11 "qualitative descriptors". In an attempt to identify gaps in MSFD, regarding the data on large marine vertebrates, the SETAC - Italian Branch organised a workshop in Siena (IT). Particular attention was paid to the qualitative descriptors 8 (contaminants and pollution effects) and 10 (marine litter). The specific remit was to discuss the potential use of large marine vertebrates (from large pelagic fish, sea turtles, sea birds and cetaceans) in determining the environmental status of pelagic marine ecosystems. During the workshop it emerged that large pelagic fish may be especially useful for monitoring short- to medium-term changes in pelagic ecosystems, while cetaceans provided a more integrated view over the long-term. A theme that strongly emerged was the broad recognition that biomarkers offer real potential for the determination of good ecological status detecting the "undesirable biological effects" (indicator for descriptor 8). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Licitra G.,ARPAT | Licitra G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ascari E.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Brambilla G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2012

Most of the European Member States have produced strategic noise maps according to the requirements issued by the 2002/49/EC directive (END) and after the first run the results are available on the web. A straightforward comparison of estimated noise exposure data in each country is meaningless because, unfortunately, different methods have been used to determine the reported data. This paper focuses on possible variations in people exposure estimate due to the method used to calculate noise levels at receivers and to assign levels to buildings, as well as to associate population to each building. Results show that the choice of the method to estimate noise exposure of inhabitants is crucial for planning effective noise mitigation actions. A simple method, considering only the noise level at the grid point closest to the building, is here proposed and it seems suitable to inform and to be understood by the public, even thought it is not appropriate for epidemiological studies or definition of action plans. Because inaccurate estimations of noise exposure may lead to misleading allocation of economical resources in action plans, the objective of the estimated exposure should be clear at the time of the choice of the calculation method in order to select the most appropriate one. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA. Source

Cervo R.,University of Florence | Bruschini C.,University of Florence | Cappa F.,University of Florence | Meconcelli S.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Bianco F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Teti L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Licitra G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Cerchiai M.,ARPAT
22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2015 | Year: 2015

A loudspeaker can be seen as a device coupling different acoustic, mechanic and electric systems by a series of impedance adaptations. A simple model can thus allow the extraction of the acoustic impedance seen by the speaker membrane from measuring the electric impedance of the device, in principle valid through a wide frequency range if some assumptions are made on mechanical modes and on the strictly electric components. This should allow, using the loudspeaker and similar devices, to perform acoustic impedance measurements. Still, many difficulties arise when trying to apply straightforwardly this method. We then aim to setup this problem in a FEM framework, to characterize and study separately its critical aspects and provide possible methods to overcome them. Source

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