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Ferretti R.,University of L'Aquila | Pichelli E.,University of L'Aquila | Gentile S.,University of L'Aquila | Maiello I.,University of L'Aquila | And 20 more authors.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

The Special Observation Period (SOP1), part of the HyMeX campaign (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiments, 5 September-6 November 2012), was dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in the western Mediterranean, and three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were identified: Liguria-Tuscany, northeastern Italy and central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models, including hydrological models and marine models, allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen strong collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper an overview of the Italian organization during SOP1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in northeastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems, including the hydrological impacts. The usefulness of having different weather forecast operational chains characterized by different numerical weather prediction models and/or different model set up or initial conditions is finally shown for one of the events (IOP19). © Author(s) 2014.


Fava L.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Orru M.A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Scardala S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Alonzo E.,Servizio Igiene Alimenti e Nutrizione | And 12 more authors.
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2010

The control of groundwater and surface water quality in relation to the presence of pesticides and their metabolites is a rather complicated task. National and local authorities with the responsibility to guarantee an adequate quality of water cannot rely on international guidelines for monitoring activities. In a national project, forty-three pesticides and pesticide metabolites were selected on the basis of sale, monitoring and physical-chemical data, and investigated from some of the main Italian agricultural areas, susceptible to pesticide contamination. Twelve compounds were found in the tested water samples at levels exceeding the 0.1 μg/L European Union (EU) limit for drinking water (European Directive 98/83/EC). Maximum levels up to 0.62 were determined. Several water samples were characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of pesticides and their metabolites (up to ten). In some samples, the total concentration of pesticides and their metabolites was higher than the EU limit of 0.5 μg/L. Total triazine concentrations up to 1.02 μg/L were found. In all the cases the highest concentrations were well below the respective guideline values defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water quality.


Zappa M.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Beven K.J.,Lancaster Environment Center | Beven K.J.,Uppsala University | Beven K.J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 13 more authors.
Atmospheric Science Letters | Year: 2010

The COST-731 action is focused on uncertainty propagation in hydrometeorological forecasting chains. Goals and activities of the action Working Group 2 are presented. Five foci for discussion and research have been identified: (1) understand uncertainties, (2) exploring, designing and comparing methodologies for the use of uncertainty in hydrological models, (3) providing feedback on sensitivity to data and forecast providers, (4) transferring methodologies among the different communities involved and (5) setting up test-beds and perform proof-of-concepts. Current examples of different perspectives on uncertainty propagation are presented. Copyright © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.


Salameh D.,Aix - Marseille University | Salameh D.,French Environment and Energy Management Agency | Detournay A.,Aix - Marseille University | Detournay A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | And 23 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2015

The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46μgm-3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37μgm-3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50μgm-3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25μgm-3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5>25μgm-3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3 - being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Isotta F.A.,Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss | Frei C.,Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss | Weilguni V.,Bundesministerium fur Land und Forstwirtschaft | Percec Tadic M.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2014

In the region of the European Alps, national and regional meteorological services operate rain-gauge networks, which together, constitute one of the densest in situ observation systems in a large-scale high-mountain region. Data from these networks are consistently analyzed, in this study, to develop a pan-Alpine grid dataset and to describe the region's mesoscale precipitation climate, including the occurrence of heavy precipitation and long dry periods. The analyses are based on a collation of high-resolution rain-gauge data from seven Alpine countries, with 5500 measurements per day on average, spanning the period 1971-2008. The dataset is an update of an earlier version with improved data density and more thorough quality control. The grid dataset has a grid spacing of 5 km, daily time resolution, and was constructed with a distance-angular weighting scheme that integrates climatological precipitation-topography relationships. Scales effectively resolved in the dataset are coarser than the grid spacing and vary in time and space, depending on station density. We quantify the uncertainty of the dataset by cross-validation and in relation to topographic complexity, data density and season. Results indicate that grid point estimates are systematically underestimated (overestimated) at large (small) precipitation intensities, when they are interpreted as point estimates. Our climatological analyses highlight interesting variations in indicators of daily precipitation that deviate from the pattern and course of mean precipitation and illustrate the complex role of topography. The daily Alpine precipitation grid dataset was developed as part of the EU funded EURO4M project and is freely available for scientific use. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.


Rossa A.M.,Centro Meteorologico Of Teolo | Laudanna Del Guerra F.,Centro Meteorologico Of Teolo | Laudanna Del Guerra F.,University of Bologna | Borga M.,University of Padua | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

This study aims to assess the feasibility of assimilating carefully checked radar rainfall estimates into a numerical weather prediction (NWP) to extend the forecasting lead time for an extreme flash flood. The hydro-meteorological modeling chain includes the convection-permitting NWP model COSMO-2 and a coupled hydrological-hydraulic model. Radar rainfall estimates are assimilated into the NWP model via the latent heat nudging method. The study is focused on 26 September 2007 extreme flash flood which impacted the coastal area of North-eastern Italy around Venice. The hydro-meteorological modeling system is implemented over the 90km2 Dese river basin draining to the Venice Lagoon. The radar rainfall observations are carefully checked for artifacts, including rain-induced signal attenuation, by means of physics-based correction procedures and comparison with a dense network of raingauges. The impact of the radar rainfall estimates in the assimilation cycle of the NWP model is very significant. The main individual organized convective systems are successfully introduced into the model state, both in terms of timing and localization. Also, high-intensity incorrectly localized precipitation is correctly reduced to about the observed levels. On the other hand, the highest rainfall intensities computed after assimilation underestimate the observed values by 20% and 50% at a scale of 20km and 5km, respectively. The positive impact of assimilating radar rainfall estimates is carried over into the free forecast for about 2-5h, depending on when the forecast was started. The positive impact is larger when the main mesoscale convective system is present in the initial conditions. The improvements in the precipitation forecasts are propagated to the river flow simulations, with an extension of the forecasting lead time up to 3h. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rainato R.,University of Padua | Mao L.,University of Santiago de Chile | Garcia-Rama A.,University of Padua | Picco L.,University of Padua | And 5 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2016

This paper investigates nearly 30years of monitoring of sediment fluxes in an instrumented Alpine basin (Rio Cordon, Italy). The collected bedload and suspended sediment transport data allows sediment dynamics to be analyzed at different time scales, ranging from short- (single event) to long-term (three decades). The Rio Cordon monitoring station has been operating since 1986, continuously recording water discharge, bedload and suspended load. At the flood event scale, a good relationship was found between peak discharges (Q peak) and sediment load (bedload and suspended load). The inter-annual sediment yields were analyzed, also assessing the contribution of the single floods to the total sediment budget. The annual suspended load ranges from 10 to 2524tyr-1, while the bedload varies from 0 to 1543tyr-1. The higher annual yields were recorded in the years when large floods occurred, highlighting that the sediment budget in the Rio Cordon is strongly controlled by the occurrence of high magnitude events. Investigation of the seasonal suspended load contribution demonstrated that from 1986 to 1993 most fine sediments were transported during the snowmelt/summer seasons, while autumn and snowmelt were the dominant seasons contributing to sediment yield in the periods 1994-2002 and 2003-2014, respectively. The mean annual sediment yield from 1986 to 2014 is equal to 103tkm-2 yr-1, and overall, bedload accounts for 21% of the total sediment yield. The ratio between the sediment transport and the effective runoff of the events allowed the temporal trends of transport efficiency to be inferred, highlighting the existence of periods characterized by different sediment availability. In particular, despite no significant changes in the hydrological variables (i.e. rainfall), nearly a decade (1994-2002) with high transport efficiency appears to have occurred after an exceptional event (recurrence interval >100years). This event affected the sediment availability at the basin and channel bed scales, and provided a legacy influencing the sediment dynamics in the basin over the long-term by increasing the transport efficiency for approximately a decade. This work benefits from the long-lasting monitoring program undertaken in the Rio Cordon and is the product of long-term data series. The quasi-unique dataset has provided detailed evidence of sediment dynamics over about three decades in a small Alpine basin, also enabling the effects triggered by an exceptional event to be analyzed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Bassan R.,ARPA Veneto | Bellio C.,ARPA Veneto | Piol R.,ARPA Veneto | D'Allura A.,ARIANET | And 2 more authors.
HARMO 2010 - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes | Year: 2010

An air quality forecasting system named SKYNET was designed for the Belluno Valley, a mountainous area located in the Dolomites mountain range. ARPAV Belluno Department performed a local emission inventory based on a bottom-up approach with particular detail on the estimation of domestic heating contribution, which was investigated through the use of more than 5000 questionnaires submitted to the population. The model has been tested in a winter period of 4 months by comparing the PM10 and NO2 forecasts for following 48 hours with the experimental data derived from two air quality stations located in Belluno and Feltre urban areas. The SKYNET performances have been evaluated with statistical indexes, and the results are overall good for both the stations. There is a particular agreement in the Belluno area, while the model reveals the tendency to under-predict the PM10 values in Feltre. The information generated by the model and a precise knowledge of the emission sources derived from the bottom-up inventory allowed to create an experimental air quality forecasting bulletin tested on a two month period, which gave reliable predictions both in Belluno (80%) and Feltre (71%).


Peviani M.A.,RSE SpA | Danelli A.,RSE SpA | Cesca M.,ARPA Veneto
Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, RIVER FLOW 2014 | Year: 2014

In the framework of the Alpine Space Programme 2007-2013, several projects directed their attention on the optimization of water resources use and the promotion of renewable energy production. In this context, hydropower is the most important renewable energy source in alpine areas, but it also creates serious environmental impacts. The RES-e Directive requires the enhancement of renewable energy but, at the same time, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) obliges member states to reach the "good ecological status" of water bodies. This often leads to conflicting issues, between hydropower generation and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. Several projects addressed these topics and significant outcomes have been achieved, but often it was not possible to create a direct link with key beneficiaries. The project Alpine space In Movement (AIM) aims at becoming a "megaphone" of the Alpine Space Programme projects active in the field of renewable energy production, water resources management and preservation of (aquatic) ecosystems. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Billi P.,University of Ferrara | Preciso E.,ARPA Veneto | Salemi E.,University of Ferrara
Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie | Year: 2014

A first aim of this paper is to investigate the existence, if any, and the parameters defining the occurrence conditions of a continuum of rhythmic, transverse roughness elements of gravel-bed rivers such as transverse ribs, step-pools and riffle and pool sequences. The investigation is carried out by the analysis of a large data set consisting of almost all the data available in the literature and unpublished field data measured by the authors on a few rivers in the eastern Alps and the northern Apennines. Open questions about the origin of these bedforms are considered and tested against the data set available. A few equations relating the main geomorphic parameters are obtained. They can be used for river restoration and paleohydrological inference. The jamming factor (ratio between the size of the coarser particle and channel width) is found as a relevant parameter in the development of the bedforms considered. The conditions and the interplays between the jamming factors and others parameters such as bedform wavelength and streambed gradient are considered in order to discriminate the fields of existence of the larger roughness transverse, cyclic elements of gravel bed rivers and to show that transverse ribs, step-pools and riffle and pool sequences are part of a coarse grained bedform continuum. © 2013 Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

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